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Annopol

Annopol

Аннополь – Annopol (Russian), Ганнопіль (Ukrainian)

Annopol (before 1761 – Glinniki), a village in the Slavutsky district, Khmelnitsky region. Settlement mentioned first time in 1602.

Since 1793 became a part of Russia. In the XIX – early XX it was a mestechko in Ostrog yezd, Volyn guberniya. In 1923-1930 Annopol was a center of a district.

Beginning

Jews settled there in the XVII century.

Since the 1770s Annopol played a prominent role in the Hasidism movement. In Annopol lived Dov-ber from Mezerich and his son Avrom “Ha-Malach” (“Angel”) (1741-1776, Fastow), who later became a Tzaddik in Fastov.

Dov Ber ruled in religious communities of Rivne  and Mezhyrich, for which he received a title of Great Magid from Mezhirichi. For further spread of Hasidism to west tzadik Dov Ber chose Hannopil where lived a large Jewish community. He lived here 12 years, died and was buried in a Jewish cemetery.

In Annopol studied Schneur Zalman from Lyadi. After the death of Dov-Ber in Annopol settled his disciple and successor, Meshulam Zusya Annopolsky (? -1800), who did much to spread Hasidism in Volyn. Zusi’s son-Zvi Menachem Mendel (? -1814) was a Tzaddik in Annopol after his father’s death. In the 19th century Jews Annopol involved in wholesale and intermediary trade by agricultural products or were a craftsmen.

Annopol enterpreneurs list  in 1913

Annopol enterpreneurs list in 1913

In 1845 the annual budget of Annopol Jewish community was 149 rubles.There were two synagogues (stone and wood) in 1858.

There were synagogues and an alms-house in 1890. Bund and the Zionist groups operated illegally between 1910-1916 in Annopol. At November 30, 1917 peasant who came to fair organized a pogrom.

During the Civil War local german Vitcke organized Jewish pogrom. There was killed 8 Jews. This man organized Jewish pogroms in Kilikiev, Slavuta, Berezdov and Velikiy Sknit too. These pogroms were investigated in 1937 and protocols are available in archive.

After Civil War

After WWI and the Civil War Jewish population began to decrease. Between 1920 and 1934 rabbi was Aron-Uri-Leib Klimnovich. There were 5 synagogues, four-year Yiddish school, in which children were not forced to write on Saturdays.

In May 1924 there was registered Jewish religious community, the head of community became Kogan Wolf Lvovich. The largest synagogue was brick with 8 copies of Thora.

Jewish population of Annopol:
1784 – 215 jews
1847 – 1626 jews
1897 – 1812 (82%)
1923 – 1008 jews
1926 – 1278 (67,4%)
1931 – 1280 jews
2000 – 0 jews

In 1925 was founded the Union of Jewish craftsmen. In the middle of 1920′s among Jews in Annopol were – 175 workers, 45 employees, 123 craftsman, 232 poor peasant, 458 – peasants of average means, three affluent peasant, 22 clergymens. Members of OZET were 110 Jews. There was a Jewish library.Jewish collective farm was created in 1930.

At April 4, 1927 in Hannopol lived 1313 Jews and Poles, there were 241 Jewish households. In the same year in the 4-year Jewish school studied 102 children in 4 groups, worked two teachers.

In 1931 was created Annopol Jewish national village council. In this year Jewish population was 1280 people.

Since the beginning of collectivization in the shtetl was organized Jewish collective farm. In 1930s there were Jewish Council, seven-year Hebrew School (closed in 1939) and Jewish Kindergarten. In 1940, in 9 grade of Hannopil School studied 43 students, only five of them were Ukrainian and Polish, the rest were Jewish children. Ukrainians, Poles and Jews lived in the shtetl in friendship and helping one another.

In 1932-1933 Annopol Jews suffered from Holodomor.

November 5, 1935 general meeting of Hannopil Jewish workers took place, there were present 185 members of cooperatives, MTS workers, factory and farm. At the meeting was discussed and approved indictment Feinstein Leybysh who taught Torah to 12-year-old son Nuhim Rosenstein. At this meeting was approved close of all synagogue in shtetl.

Building of the synagogue “Berezner Kloyz” was transferred to the warehouse of rural consumer societies, “Shylhen” synagogue – under farm club, “Beis-Hamedrosh” synagogue – under the Pioneer Club.

One of the closure reason f of the “Trysker Kloyz” synagogue was that the Chairman of community was 108 years old and he is sick. Building of the synagogue was given to a local farm and in the synagogue “Oster Kloyz” was opened workshop. (Khmelnitskiy Archiv, fond 762, op.1, d.1031).

Holocaust

Annopol was occupied by Germans forces July 7, 1941. Local police was headed by german Zachyk who worked at the ethanol factory before the war. In the first days of the occupation ordered to Jews to sew yellow six-pointed star of David on the outerwear.

In 20′s July 1941 local policemans killed 25 Jewish man in the field at northern outskirts of the village. Relaties were allowed to bury them at Jewish cemetery.
At the July 28, 1941 Jewish men were forced to dig three pits in career of brick factory on the outskirts of the village, next to the hospital. There were killed more than 200 Jews(part of them was from Kilikiev village). After the war the remains of murdered Jews were reburied to the Jewish cemetery. Monument was erected on this mass grave. In the end of August were killed more than 100 jews.

September 6, 1941 Jews were impose on ransom 80.000 rubles. In the autumn 1941 Nazis created Jewish ghetto, there were forced Jews from surrounding villages (Velikiy Sknit, Maliy Sknit, Dovjik and others)

Ripa family (Paraska and Mark) save Sonya Bider who escaped from ghetto.

Cold March Day in 1942 all Jews (50 persons) were sent to Slavuta ghetto. Unknown number were killed on the road (7-10 persons). Last Jews from Annopol and the nearby villages were killed in Slavuta together with local Jews and Jews from Berezdov and Krasnostav at July 26, 1942 during ghetto extermination. Many Jewish houses were looted and destroyed because local peasants search gold in it.

Annopol was liberated by Red Army at the middle of January 1944.

During Holocaust in Annopol were killed 815 Jews. We know names only of 356…

I didn’t find information about Jews in Annopol after WWII.

Jewish cemetery

Cemetery was founded in XVIII century.

On Tuesday, the 19th day of Kislev 5533 (1772), Rabbi DovBer, successor to the Baal Shem Tov, leader of the chassidic movement and teacher of Rabbi Schneur Zalman, returned his soul to his Maker, and his earthly remains were interred in Annopol Jewish Cemetery.  Rabbi Meshulam Zusya Annopolsky (? -1800) is burring here too. Ohel was constructed above both graves,

Jewish cemetery was vandalized during WWII, ohel was destroyed. After the war last Slavuta Rabbi Menachem-Nachum Shapiro marked Holy Place of Tzadikim graves by concrete. In 1988 in Annopol arrived Lubavitcher Hasidim from Moscow and according to size of practically disappeared concrete restored the monument on the graves of Dov-Ber and Meshulam-Zusi.

There is still exist Holocaust unmarked Jewish mass graves around a village…

Photos taken from http://izeman.com/Site/Welcome_to_Izeman.com.html

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