Baranovka (Russian), Baranówka (Polish), Баранівка (Ukrainian), Барановка – Baranovka (Russian)
Baranovka, a city (since 2001), the district center in Zhytomyr region. This settlement was known from 1565. In the XVI-XVIII centuries it was Volyn province town in the Commonwealth. Since 1793 Baranovka became a part of Russia Empire. In the XIX – early XX century – a shtetl in Novograd-Volynskiy district in Volyn guberniya.
In 1802 on the left bank of the Sluch river, near Baranovka, was found kaolin deposit. French entrepreneur Moser bought land and established a porcelain factory here. Till the beginning of WWII many Jews worked on this factory.
Jewish population of Baranovka:
1847 – 893 jews
1897 – 1990 (95%)
1923 – 1100 jews
1926 – 1602 (29.9%)
1939 – 1447 (23%)
1989 – 44 jews
1998 – 3 jewish families
2014 – 13 jews
In 1889 there was Jewish Hospital. Shmuel Margulin was a Rabbi in baranovka (1857 -?) in 1890s’. In the early XX century there were men’s and women’s private schools. In 1912 there was Jewish Savings and Loan Association.
More detail about pre-Revolution period you can find in book by Leonid Kogan “Zvyl”.
At the end of August 1920 troops of the 1st Cavalry Army arrange pogrom. Porcelain factory was nationalized in 1920.
In archive of JDC (here) I found interesting document about pogroms in Baranovka during Civil War 1917-1920
Joint Distribution Committie report in 1920s’ from Baranopvka gave short description of Civil War pogroms and economic situation in 1920s.
The town Baranovka is situated in 22 versts from the railroad line. Before the civil war it was a trade center, supplying neighboring villages with products and manufactured goods.
The total population of the city before the pogroms was 6000, of whom 2000 were Jews. Now the population consists of 5500 with 1800 Jews. The number of Jewish houses was 260, and still remains the same, but the number of Jewish shops has decreased from 100 to 40.
Baranovka entrepreneurs in 1913. From pre-revolution “Yellow pages”
From March 1919 to December 1920 Baranovka was the scene of 5 pogroms led by the bands of Petlura, Sokolov, by the Poles and various demoralized insurgent detachments. As a result of these pogroms 45 persons were murdered and 20 women violated. Altogether about 200 families were pogromized. There are now in Baranovka 12 widows, 6 full orphans and 40 half orphans.
Baranovka has a porcelain factory and a steam flour mill. The products of the factories are consumed by the local population and neighboring towns. Several glass factories in the surrounding towns have been destroyed. Economic conditions in Baranovka were satisfactory before the war.
At the present time there are over 300 employed workmen of whom 230 are Jews. The heads of families of the Jewish working population can be classified as follows:
– 50% workmen and artisans
– 15% merchants
– 35% unemployed and those without definite occupations.
Relief Rendered: $800 was received from the American Baranovka Landsmanschaft. This money was distributed as follows:
– $400 for repairs to the Bath
– $500 for individual relief
– $100 for grating around the Jewish Cemetery, In addition small amounts of clothing and shoes have been distributed.
Jewish Public school: 3 year course. This school was founded in December 1922 and about 70 children (girls and boys) ranging in age from 6 to 14 attends the classes. The student corps consists of 6 full orphans, 38 half orphans and 26 children having parents. The majority of these children are the children of local artisans and workmen of the Baranovsky Porcelain Factory. The premises of the Baranovka Public School are very good. They consist of 5 well lit, dry, spacious rooms. Attached to the School is a great kitchen garden-park and orchard where the children can play in summer, work in the orchard, and learn practically the natural sciences. The teachers staff consists of 3 persons and 1 technical worker. The school is maintained by the Uyesd Narobraz. It is occasionally supplied by the Evobcom with clothing and shoes. An agreement has been entered into by the School with the local Sel Soviet regarding the regular supply of the school by the latter, but so far this is only an agreement on paper. Aa a result, the school now finds itself in a critical situation. If it does not receive credit or assistance it will have to be closed as it serves the needs of the poorest children for which it receives no payment. In addition, it must supply the latter with stationery and school appliances from its own funds.
The School has no equipment of its own, but borrows equipment from other schools. There is no library, no school appliances. Additional equipment, a library, school appliances, etc., as well as a sum for the remuneration of the personnel is urgently needed. There are about 50 uncared for children and It is necessary to organize a home for them. The local population is willing to bear part of the expanses for the maintenance of such a children home.
Medico-Sanitary: There exists in Baranovka one soviet Hospital with 25 beds. Attached to this is a dispensary which handles from 30-35 patients daily. The latter is maintained by the funds of the Ousdrav. However premises repaired. Bed linen, kitchen utensils, medicaments and medical appliances are all badly needed, because of the lack of medicaments, bandages, etc. The Jewish population is generally unable to receive medical assistance though the need for such is very acute in Baranovka. Treatment at home is beyond the means not only of the poorest population, but also of the middle class. This is due to the high cost of medicaments. The Evobcom intends to organize a Dispensary with a pharmacy which would take care of the needs of the poorest population as regards medicaments, etc.
Credit: Before the pogroms there existed in Baranovka a Mutual Credit Society and Loan-Saving Kassa. The hoods of these organizations still reside in Baranovka and are now organizing a Loan Kassa.
Before beginning of WWII in Baranovka lived 1447 Jews (23% of total population) and 839 Jews lived in villages of Baranovka district.
City was occupied by German forces at 1941, 6 July. Only 30% of Jewish population was evacuated or called up to military service. In July-August 1941 Baranovka was under control of military commandant office. Police was created from local Ukrainians and it take part in all violent acts against Jews. All Jews were registered and many used for hard labor (road repairing, firewood gathering etc.). Jewish ghetto was created on separated street in the center of Baranovka at the end of July 1941. Jews were prohibited to leave ghetto and buy foods. Famine began in ghetto.
First “action” took place at 1941, July 19 (87 Jews were executed in the jewish cemetery).
Next “action” took place in 2 weeks when approximately 102 Jews were carry out on 3 trucks in direction of Poninki and shooted near Ostrogok village (part of names are known).
Monument on the Holocaust Mass Grave in Baranovka
Third “action” take place at 1941, August 24 when 180 Jews were killed in 7 km to the west of the town. It was performed by 45 Reserve Police Battalion. In November 1941 all Jewish men which were capable to work were moved to Novograd-Volinskiy labor camp and in ghetto stay only women, children and elderly persons.
Ghetto was liquidated at 1941, January 6. In that day Ukraine police killed 594 persons – local Jews and Jews from nearby villages (children were thrown in pit alive). In second part of 1942 in villages of Baranovka district were killed: Dubrovka – 50 Jews, Pershotravensk – 40 Jews, Zeremle – 22 Jews, Kashperovka – 4 Jews, in other villages of the district – 3 Jews (119 persons at all). During Holocaust in Baranovka and Baranovka district were killed more than 6000 Jews.
After the war some Jews return in Baranovka from evacuation.
In independent Ukraine Jewish community was officially registered again. First head of community became Vladimir Dmitrievich Fink (emmigrated to Germany), after him became his sister Svetlana Fink (emmigrated to Germany). Since 2006 head of Baranovka Jewish Community officiate Klavdiya Efimovna Shura (+380-4144-43406).
In 2014 there lived only 13 Jews.
Some general information about Baranovka you can find here.
Due to efforts of local jurnalist Strilchuk Anatolii Pavlovich and financila help of Yuriy Kanner where errected 17 monuments on Holocaust mass grave in Baranovka and Baranovka area. Mr. Strilchuk find from different sources hundreds names of killed Jews. Monument to the Holocaust victims in Baranovka was erected in 2008.
The cemetery is located on the south of the settlement in Levanivs’koho Str., 2 near the road to Pervomais’k. It was cleaned on expence of Jew from local creamery. In 2014 small monument to Holocaust victims was erected near the entrance.
Holocaust Mass Grave
Northern Baranivka – 2 km urochische Sosnina; to the west from the Baranivka – Novohrad – Volynskyi highway. There is a memorial at the site. It is the biggest mass grave of Baranovka Jew’s, there were murdered approximately 1.500 persons.