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Boguslav

Boguslav
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Bohsla (Yiddish), Boslw (German), Богуслав – Boguslav (Russian,Ukrainian)

Boguslav is a city (since 1938), district center in the Kiev region.

Since 1360 – in the Great Kingdom of Lithuania; since 1569 – city of Kiev povet and province in the Commonwealth.

Beginning

The first known instance of Jewish settlement in Bohuslav dates from the late 16th/early 17th century.

Jewish population of Boguslav:
1765 – 574 jews
1847 — 5294 jews
1897 — 7445 (65,5%)
1910 — 14 236 (72%)
1926 — 6432 (53%)
1939 — 2230 jews
1989 — 179 jews
2004 – 50 jews

The Jewish population of Bohuslav suffered during the Khmelnitsky pogroms in 1648, from the Cossack raids of 1702, and from the Haidamak pogroms in 1768. In 1765 in Bohuslav lived 574 Jews, in 1784 – 622 Jews.

In 1789, the local population made a failed attempt to expel Jews from the town as a result of the supposed monopolization of trade by Jewish merchants. The town’s Jews defended themselves, explaining to the local authorities that they lived there with the permission of the Rzeczpospolita (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) and brought profit to the district, and that during most recent pogroms they had lost property to the amount of 284,000 zlotys and had been expelled from their houses.

The Jewish community started developing more actively after the annexation of Bohuslav to the Russian Empire in 1793.

In the middle of XVIII century Hevra Kadisha acted here. In the XVIII century Rabbis in Boguslav were Moishe-Eykel Gurevich, Avrum Rapoport, Dovid Kruglyak.In 1797, the Jewish population numbered 1,288 people Bohuslav and 6980 Jews in 1863.

Boguslav enterpreneurs in 1913

Torah School Book. Printed in Boguslav at 1820

Torah School Book. Printed in Boguslav at 1820

In the beginning of XIX century there was a Jewish printing house.

In the middle of XIX century Boguslav drinking rent belong to the merchants of 1st guild Gersh Balakhovskaya and at the end of the XIX century cloth factory  was owned by merchant Mordko Juzefov and distillery – to Haya Nemirovskaya.

In 1863 there were 3 synagogue and 16 in 1897 (one Great Synagogue, according to legend, was founded in the XVII century and 15 craft synagogues – shoemakers, weavers, tailors, furriers, carpenters, etc. which were founded at the end of XVII – the beginning of the XIX century), there were two Jewish cemeteries. In 1895 Rabbis were Joseph Zaslavsky and Pinchas-Avrum Berger.

Sholom Aleihem lived in Boguslav  with the family of his grandparents – Gitl-Yossi and Moishe Gamarnitskih some time after death of his mother.

Oldest building in Boguslav, build in 1726. Former Heder

Oldest building in Boguslav, build in 1726. Former Heder

In 1897 in Boguslav lived 7,745 Jews (65% of the population).

In 1901 Bohuslav functioned Talmud Torah (in 1909 – 130 students), private male school M.Ginzburg, female school of K.Ginsburg, in 1909 – a hospital, hospice, community guardianship of orphans, society of help for  poor, 3 private men’s college and over 20 headers (of 400 students), 3 female college (including one free, a total of 150 students), College 2nd class created by local educational society (over 50 students). Since 1910, there operated care for poor children of the Jews, in 1912 – Jewish Savings and Loan Association. Amount local taxes collected in 1900’s reached 6000 rubles per year (for the needs of the community could be used 2600).

Pogroms

The Jewish population of Bohuslav suffered under the 1918-20 pogroms; at least 50 people were killed and many more were injured. Hundreds of Jewish buildings including synagogues, houses, shops and warehouses were burnt down.

Boguslav sinagogue after pogrom. 1919

Boguslav sinagogue after pogrom. 1919

Local non-Jewish residents were warned that they would be shot for assisting the Jews. Nevertheless, some did help; some for a fee, others at no cost. Other locals, however, played an active role in the looting. A Jewish self-defence league with over 1,000 members was created in early January 1920 which saved the town from many further attacks; Bohuslav even served as a refuge for other Jews who fled nearby towns and villages. The self-defence league was called upon by other Jewish communities and by local peasants under threat from bandits to assist in the establishment of similar organisations.

Boguslav self defence unit

Boguslav self defence unit

The son of one of the participants in the Jewish self-defence league recollects his father’s stories: “My father spoke at a gathering of young Jewish people, appealing to them to organize a self-defence unit to struggle against the bandits. There were about 600 people in their units. They had 250 rifles, two automatic guns, bombs and grenades. I have no idea where they managed to get these weapons. The unit raided nearby villages and towns to fight the armed gangs. Bohuslav became a centre of self-defence in Kanev district, Kiev region. The local population sympathized with them and supported them with food and accommodation. They struggled for three years. On the third anniversary of the creation of their fighting unit, my father made an ardent speech expressing his appreciation of their bravery. In summer 1923, the self-defence league of Bohuslav was dismissed as there were no bandits left in the country and peaceful reconstruction work had begun.”

Boguslav self defence unit. 1920's

Boguslav self defence unit. 1920’s

In 1921 branch of Evsekciya opened in Boguslav. In the beginning of 1920’s acted illegal Zionist organization. In September 1922 was arrested a group of Zionists.

JDC report

I find this report on JDC Archiv website, it gave wide description of Boguslav Jewish community state at 1923:

April 11, 1923

The number of Jews in Boguslav is estimated at 13,000, of whom 3,435 are wage earners. Most of them are engaged in the textile industry, which is well developed in that city.

There are also a number of large mills and other Industrial enterprises in Boguslav and its surroundings, where many Jewish workers are employed.

Boguslav. Petlura pogrom victims

Boguslav. Petlura pogrom victims

The Jewieh population of Boguslav has suffered from a number of pogroms resulting in: Killed 48, Wounded 70, Violated over. 300, Houses destroyed 25, Shops destroyed 370

At the end of 1919, a self-defence organization was formed. Since then Boguslav became a centre where thousands of refugees from pogromized places with no self-defence have been concentrating. The number of refugees at one time amounted to 15,000. But due to the organization of similar self-defence organizations in the surrounding towns and also because of their partial restoration most of the refugees have returned to their homes, so that now only 600 refugee families remain, 60 of which wish to return to their old places, but because of lack of means they cannot do so.

Boguslav. Hostel for pogrom refugees. 1920's

Boguslav. Hostel for pogrom refugees. 1920’s

As a result of overcrowding, epidemics broke out which caused the death of hundreds of persons. Up to the present time the JDO has distributed the following in Boguslav: Food Packages 95 Underwear (suits) 300 Children’s Institutions in Boguslav 3 Children’s Homes for 110 children 1 Favus house for 40 children 1 Open Home for 129 children 3 Schools with 303 children

All of these institutions are being subsidized by the JDC, through the Evobkom, to the extent of $114 worth of food monthly. We have also assisted them with fuel, clothing, shoes and cash for repairs and equipment from the allocations to the Evobkom. The institutions are, however, in need of additional beds, bedding, furniture and school supplies.

The Favus home was founded on August 15th, 1923, and makes a rather painful impression. The home requires substantial repairs. Due to the insufficient number of beds, the children sleep two in one bed. Medical attention is insufficient, as a result of which the children suffer.

Jewish gravestones on the road in Boguslav, Shevchenko Str.

Jewish gravestones on the road in Boguslav, Shevchenko Str.

The children in the above institutions are mostly full and half-orphans, but apart from these, there are 378 additional orphans who are practically homeless and who receive practically no education.

The only typhoid hospital which was founded in the summer 1930 for 30 beds, has now been reduced to 30 beds, and after the removal of the Uyesd to Korsum, it is probable that the hospital will be closed altogether, leaving the entire Jewish population, including the children in the institutions, without any medical assistance.

There are 130 individuals who have lost their capacity to work. These poor people manage to eke out their miserable existence by begging.

In September, 1923, a Credit-Cooperative was organized in Boguslav aiming to assist artisan and agricultural cooperatives, individual workers producing for the market, and small traders. Through the initiative of this Credit Cooperative, an agricultural artel (Cooperative) is being organized with 50 families, for the cultivation of 300 dessiatins of land. There are a number of other workers in Boguslav who would gladly work land if they had the opportunity and the means.

Ruins in Boguslav after pogrom

Ruins in Boguslav after pogrom

Besides the agricultural, there are the following other artels in Boguslav:

I. TEETILE ARTEL; consisting of 100 members. The capacity of this artel is limited to 17 workers only, so that the members have to work in shifts. When not occupied in the artel they must needs of course earn their living otherwise. If supplied with credit for raw material, the artel could provide employment for all its members.

2. TAILORS’ ARTEL; has a membership of 50, but only 8 can work at the same time. To provide facilities for all members, 15 sewing machines are required.

3. WOOD-WORKING ARTEL: has 30 members, but because of lack of raw material and credit, they are unoccupied at present. The JDC has granted a loan of $11,000 to the Credit Cooperative.

RELIEF NEEDED:

a) To open a School Nursery for 150 children, enabling their mothers to earn their living.

b) To repair the buildings of the existing children’s institutions and equip them with necessary furniture, etc.

c) Besides the Favus Home with 40 children, there are in Boguslav about 100 other children infected with favus who must be isolated in order not to spread this disease. These additional children must therefore be taken care of.

d) To save the only hospital from closing $200 is needed. The population would try its best to maintain it henceforth.

Ruins in Boguslav after pogrom

Ruins in Boguslav after pogrom

e) To enlarge and maintain the capacity of the Home for Aged, now inhabited only by refugees, so that invalids could also be taken in.

f) To render relief to the most needy, supplying them with food, clothing, underwear and footwear.

g) In order to enable the Credit Cooperative to increase its activities and satisfy the existing need an additional loan of at least 11,500. is needed. With that amount the Credit Cooperative could develop its operations to such an extent that it would cover the immediate credit needs in the Boguslav district.

Jewish tombstones on the streets of Boguslav

Jewish tombstones on the streets of Boguslav

h) To give employment to the Tailors, Textile and Wood-workers in their cooperatives, $1,350 is needed.

i) To enable the 60 refugee families to r turn to their former homes, providing them with travelling expenses, food, etc at least $1750 is needed.

In 1926, 6,432 Jews (53% of the total population) lived in Bohuslav. In 1930’s there was illegal Habad heder under rule of Rabbi Luchinskiy. On the eve of the Second World War, the Jewish population of Bohuslav had decreased to 2,230 people.

Holocaust

The Germans occupied right-bank part of Boguslav on July 23, 1941 and left-bank part in July 27, 1941. Considerable proportion of the town’s Jewish population har time to fled and survived in evacuation. First two days of German occupation happened pogrom when few dozens Jew were killed. Systematic killing and mocking became a part of life. Local police gavered pretty jewish women and send them to german officers. In August 1941 all Boguslav Jews were concentrated in ghetto on Provalnaya Str. Jews were forced to scavange and didn’t recieved food for work.

At August 23, 1941 Germans collect aprox. 100 young man Jews and shoot them near the road to village Tuniki. At September 15, 1941 operative-command 5 execute 322 Jews (from other sources aprox. 500) and reported In Berlin that no Jews left in Boguslav. In same time was executed group of Jews-captives which were cured in local hospital. During next days of occupations Germans catch and execute Jews which were tried to hide and survive. These Jews were killed in different unknown places all over the city and surrounding areas. Among killed were many Jews-refuges from other citys and villages. In Boguslav were execute several Jewish families from Mironovka.

Monument on the mass killing site was erected in 1990’s. aprox.

This list of Jewish soldiers from Boguslav which were killed during WWII was created in 1997 by head of local Jewish community Grinberg. There are 146 names…

10 local inhabitans were honored as Righteous Among the Nations.

Old Jewish cemetery was fully destroyed. In this cemetery were burried many famous Boguslav Jews and grandmother of Shalom Aleihem among them.

Bogulav was liberated by Red Army at February 3, 1944.

After WWII

A number of Jews who had left returned to the town after its liberation by Soviet troops in 1944; a synagogue was opened in 1947. After the WWII head of Jewish religious community was Fonarev Isaac Matveevych (1896-?).

Hinda Erdel at home in Boguslav 1994

Hinda Erdel at home in Boguslav 1994

 

This is a part of interview with Roman Tivin, member of Boguslav Jewish community, which was published in Nadezhda newspaper in 2015:

During the Soviet period the Jews of Bohuslav used to congregate at the house of my uncle, Izya Avramovych Mamut. He lived opposite the club of the clothing factory. No-one could suspect him, because he was an old party member. They had the Torah, tallits and prayer books. My uncle fought in the war and had many medals. The father of Mykhail Kivenko, Hedaliy, used to come there as well. They came to pray in a special room with a piano. One elderly Jew, Tune Lopata, used to play the piano before the war. Food and drinks were served also as everybody knew that there was an informer among the neighbors in the communal apartment. They used to meet up on high holidays, on anniversaries (yurtsayts). They changed their clothing and started to pray, while we, little kids, played in the yard and kept an eye out for intruders. If we saw the policemen on motorcycles, we would let them know immediately. Then Lopata would sit at the piano and start to play, while the table was quickly laid with vodka and snacks. The policemen would come into the house and say: “So, are you praying here?” – “Who told you that? We are just celebrating”. And Lopata would belt out “The Party is at the Helm”, and the others would sing along. So the policemen had to leave. And the group would change their clothes and continue to pray.

The Torah in the velvet cover and other ritual objects were kept at the place of an old Jew called Zayonchik. It was placed in a sack and I would carry it to my uncle’s. But then my father Efim Tivin, Hedaliy Kivenko, Misha Ryzhiy, Mozya Bezrukiy (Prober) sold all these to the Gorsky Jews, the Jews from the Caucuses region,  who came to live there. They wanted to do some maintenance work on the cemetery but had no money so they sold the books and the rest of it because they thought there was no-one left to do the praying. At same time it was simply too dangerous to congregate and pray. My uncle Zis Mamut was imprisoned for asking for a permit to pray in his house.

Paint on the wall of former house of merchant Pokrass (now city hall) . It was discovered in 2010's

Paint on the wall of former house of merchant Pokrass (now city hall) . It was discovered in 2010’s

By 1989, only 179 Jews lived in Bohuslav – a number which decreased further as a result of emigration in the 1990s.

In the 1990’s. Bohuslav was opened Jewish Culture society “Dobrodiy”, jewish library, a monument to the Holocaust victims.

Members of Boguslav Jewish community in local museum

Members of Boguslav Jewish community in local museum

Boguslav Jews near Holocaust mass grave

Boguslav Jews near Holocaust mass grave

Genealogy information in Ukraine Archivs

Аrchitecture

Building of town concil before revolution belong to Jewish merchant Pokras (build in 1887).

House of Jewish merchant Pokras

House of Jewish merchant Pokras

Oldest building in Boguslav, build in 1726. It was a Heder before Revolution and now it is museum.  Address: Shevchenka Str., 35

Sholom Aleihem memorial table located at Franka Str., 21.

Synagogue

From buildings of 16 synagogue in beginning of XX century now exist building of one only. It belong to municipal property and wasn’t returned to community. I haven’t find building’s photo.

Holocoust Mass Grave

Mass grave located on the northern outskirts of Boguslav. Unknown Jews number were killed and buried there (300-500 persons) .

Boguslav Holocaust mass grave

Boguslav Holocaust mass grave

Boguslav Jewish Cemetery

First graves date by XVII century. The Jewish cemetery was looted after the WWII, when the gravestones and monuments have been used for roads restoration. According to members of the Jewish community, dozens of Jewish philanthropists transferred money to the local council and ordered to move tombstones in the cemetery, but their money has been used for a different purpose.

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