Kaniow (Polish), Канiв – Kaniv (Ukrainian), Канев – Kanev (Russian)
KANIV, port on the Dnieper River in Сherkassy district, Ukraine.
Jewish settlement began in the end of the 17th century or the beginning of the 18th.
From 98 (including the surrounding villages) in 1765, the Jewish population grew to 1,635 in 1847 and 2,682 (30% of the total population) in 1897.
In 1910, the town had a synagogue, two prayer houses, two male and one female government-sponsored schools. Before WWI most of the petty trade in town was in Jewish hands, all groceries and textile shops as well as others.
Kaniv entrepreneurs in 1913:
Civil War pogroms
Kanev map by 1913
The Jews of On November 6, 1917, local hoodlums ransacked many Jewish properties; this happened again in the beginning of autumn 1919 by General Denikin’s soldiers.
Jewish self-defence unit was created in pogrom period. According to documents at 1922 this unit was’t disband (30 persons).
In “Book of Pogroms” Milyakov L.B. (Moscow, 2007) mentioned case than 35 Jews escaped from Kanev due to pogroms, but were caught by kozaks and looted, 3 women were killed and some women were raped.
In 1926, the Jewish population of Kaniv stood at 1,395. Before the war, Jews lived in the city centre, in the area of the present-day Korczak, Sverdlov, Shkol’naya and Vorovs’kogo streets.
Jewish population of Kanev:
1765 – 98 jews
1847 – 1635 jews
1897 – 2682 (30%)
1926 – 1395 jews
2001 – 18 jews
Kanev was occupied by the Germans on August 16, 1941. In November 1941, 150 Jews were shot in Berestovetsky ravine. Those Jews who were not killed in the first massacre, tried to escape from the city and hide during the beginning of the winter of 1941/42. They were caught by local police and taken to Korsun’, where they were shot in the Kuschaevka ravine. From other source the Jews who remained were herded into one building under horrible conditions and robbed of all their property. Ater two months they were taken to Korsun and murdered in November 1941 together with the local Jews.
Kanev was liberated on February 3, 1944.
A Jewish religious community was re-founded in 1993. The Jewish population of Kaniv is currently 102 people. The synagogue building has been preserved and the old cemetery is still in use.
Was built in 1908 on the place of old wooden synagogue. Synagogue was closed by authorities in April 1930. In building was established a college and after the WWII building belong to musical school.
In the 1990-th building didnt become a property of jewish community because it hasnt money for keep it in order and authorities gave a small building not far from building of Old Synagogue.
Kaniv Jewish Cemetery
Kaniv Jewish cemetery. Photo by Lo-Tishkach project
Cemetery was established in 18th century and still in use. Situated in the central part of the city, near the hydro-forest-meliorative station, 300 meters to the left from the Myronivka-Kyiv road. Go along the forest road for about 100 meters, the cemetery is located 20 meters away from the lifting gate.
About 150 Jews were murdered at the Berestovetsky Yar in Kaniv, together with non-Jewish locals, at different time between 1941 and 1943. Edges of ravine were blowed up by nazi before Kaniv was liberated. Monument was established in 1994.
From Kyivs’ka Street, walk 300 meters in the direction of Kaniv and Korsun’, towards the memorial in Berestovetsky Yar.
In 1908 Jewish community asked authorities for money from local taxes for bathhouse building. They recieved money and build Mikva. Now building of bathhouse situated on the area of autoenterprise on the bank of Dynaec streem. I dont have photos of this building but will try to get them.