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Makarov

Makarov
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Makarov is a city, district center of Kiev region. The city’s estimated population is 11.860 (as of 2006).

It is known since the early 17th century. In the XVII-XVIII centuries it was a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1793 it was incorporated into the Russian Empire. In the XIX and early XX centuries, it was a shtetl of Kiev uyezd (district) in Kiev gubernia.

Head of local museum Vitaliy Hedz, US tourist Aaron Ginsburg and author of this article in Makarov museum, 2017

Head of local museum Vitaliy Hedz, US tourist Aaron Ginsburg and author of this article in Makarov museum, 2017

Beginning

According to some historical sources, Jews in Makarov appeared in the second part of the XVIII century. A synagogue was built there and it became the residence of one of the first rabbis of Kiev region.

In 1754, a fact of beating several Jews by the local police was recorded in documents.

Jewish population of Makarov:
1765 – 217 Jews
1852 – 1150Jews
1897 – 3953 (74%)
1926 – 582 (14%)
1939 – 269 (8%)
2017 ~ 10 Jews

In 1765, it numbered 217 people. From the beginning of the 19th century, the town belonged to landowner Mikhail Pavsha, and later to his son Ksaveriy and his grandson Nikolay Ksaveryevich; their estate administration was located in the town.
In the XIX century, the Jewish population of Makarov was severely suffering from frequent fires that took place in 1854, 1855, 1856, 1859.

The fire of 1865 destroyed 50 Jewish houses.

Makarov entrepreneurs list from Russian Empire Business Directories by 1913

Makarov entrepreneurs list from Russian Empire Business Directories by 1913

A Hasidic dynasty (a branch of Chernobyl Hasidism) was founded in Makariv in 1837. Its founder was Rebbe Menachem Nachum Tversky (1805, Chernobyl – 1852, Makariv), the first son of the second Chernobyl rebbe. Rebbe Menachem Nachum stood out among his 7 brothers by his insistence on returning to his grandfather’s traditions. After his father’s death, Rebbe Menachem Nachum left for Makariv and founded a magnificent court there, in accordance with the tradition of the Chernobyl rebbes. He married the granddaughter of the Seer of Lublin (Rebbe Yaakov Itshak).

Rebbe Nachum died on the 7th of Tishrei 5612 (1852), though there is a legend that he was killed during prayers on Rosh Hashanah. He was succeeded by his son, Rebbe Yaakov Itshak of Makarov (1832-1892). He was named after his grandfather, the Seer of Lublin, whom, they say, he resembled.

PreRevolution Jewish neighborhood in Makarov, 2017

PreRevolution Jewish neighborhood in Makarov, 2017

In 1852, he occupied his father’s place in Makariv; he was influential and enjoyed the recognition and love of his father’s Hasids. It is known that Rebbe Yaakov Itshak was denouced and imprisoned for some time in Kiev. Rebbe Yaakov Itshak had three sons. Two of them, Rebbe Moshe Mordechai of Makarov-Berdichev (1844-1920) and Rebbe Yeshaya of Makarov (?-1920), took over Makariv’s Hasidic court after their father’s death in 1892. At the beginning of the 20th century, Rebbe Moshe Mordechai left for Kodnya, then, in 1910, to Berdichev, where he became the Makarov tzaddik of the town.

Rebbe Moshe Mordechai was famous for his prayers: it is said that those who heard them could not forget it. He was buried in Berdichev. His son, Rebbe Tsvi Arye (Ersh-Leyb) of Makarov-Berdichev (? – 1938, Berdichev) took the court to Berdichev after his father’s death. He was known as a healer and miracel worker. He was buried in the family vault in Berdichev. Rebbe Moshe Mordechai’s brother, Rebbe Yeshaya of Makarov, moved to Kiev in 1916. He became famous for his phenomenal memory, exceptional generosity, and unique lyrical tenor. He was very knowledgeable and spoke perfect Russian. Rebbe Yeshaya’s son, Rebbe Yaakov Itshak of Kiev-Chicago (1896-1945), headed the court of the Makarov Hasids in Kiev when he was 14 years old, after his father’s death. In 1926, he left Kiev for Chicago, where he founded a beit midrash. Rebbe Yaakov Itshak’s third son, Rebbe David of Kiev, died in Kiev in 1902. His son, Rebbe Menachem Nachum of Makarov-Zovgel (1872-1925), moved to the USA and was the Makarov tzaddik in Massachusetts.

PreRevolution brewery in Makarov, 2017.

PreRevolution brewery in Makarov, 2017.

During the XIX century, the synagogue and the beit midrash were rebuilt several times (at the landowner’s expense according to L. Pokhilevich) because of fires devastating the town. In 1867 there was one synagogue in Makariv; by the end of the century there were six. According to Pokhilevich, Makariv’s rabbi received an annual income of 150 roubles. In 1910 there is evidence of a well-regarded Talmud Torah in Makariv, in 1912 a Jewish savings co-operative and in 1913 a Jewish hospital. In 1914, all three drugstores, 85 shops, a tavern, 2 honey factories and 2 timber yards belonged to Jews.

In the late XIX/early XX century, the official Makariv rabbi was Dr Simcha Veniaminovich Gluzman. From 1910, the rabbi of Makariv was the Lubavitch Hasid L. Grausman.

There was a Makarov synagogue on this site

There was a Makarov synagogue on this site

Civil War pogrom

The Jewish population of Makariv suffered under the pogroms of the Civil War. Makariv’s Jews defended themselves against attacks on November 21, 1917, but on July 6 and August 15 1919 20 Jews were killed in attacks by gangs led by Sokolovsky and Matviyenko. By the time the Volunteer Army arrived, about 4,000 Jews had left Makariv, leaving around 200 elderly people. Around half of those remaining were killed during a pogrom carried out by the Volunteer Army on 18 August 1919, including 17 members of a Jewish delegation sent to greet them. A further pogrom took place on 6 September 1919.

Site of destroyed Jewish cemetery in Makarov. Unknown number of mass graves with pogrom victims were located there.

Site of destroyed Jewish cemetery in Makarov. Unknown number of mass graves with pogrom victims were located there.

There exist memoirs about pogroms in Makarov which were written in Russian by residents Temskii G.L., Krupievskii O.Sh., and Frimgod Khaim. These documents can be easily accessed.
Khaim Frimgod witnessed a pogrom carried by Denikin’s pogrom in 1919. “On Monday August 18, volunteers entered Makarov. Jews with bread and salt went to meet them but this present was rejected. Immediately they began to beat the Jews, they took their boots and dresses off and gave them to local peasants. Jews were caught in the streets and shot. About 50 elderly men were shot during the pogrom. They killed five to six Jews a day. It was impossible to escape from the shtetl. It was impossible to escape from the shtetl as there was risk of being killed on the road out. Bodies of dead Jews lied in the streets, dogs and pigs were nibbling their heads.
Afterwards peasants threw the bodies into mass graves in groups of 20-25. About 80 Torah scrolls were destroyed. Last Monday of September, eight Jews were killed at the local hospital. The total number of Jews that were killed during this period was approximately 100 people. Their belongings were stolen, and the rest of the Jews fled Makarov.

Between the Wars

As a result of the pogroms the Jewish community of Makarov was greatly reduced. The majority of Jews never returned to Makarov. In 1926 only 582 Jews lived here.
On September 20 1922, the first agricultural collective farm “Revival” was formed. I.A. Glazman was elected as its head. The majority of collective farm workers were Jews. In 1930, there were 141 Jewish workers. During

I.A. Glazman, Head of Jewish farm in Makarov

In 1930, there were 141 Jewish workers. During famine of 1932-1933 the collective farm fed Ukrainian children, thus saving their lives. After the war, the collective farm started its work again. On June 19th 1950, the collective farm “Revival” was united with the Petrovskii collective farm, and turned into the Khrushchev collective farm.

Holocaust

Makarov had been occupied from July 11th 1941 till November 8th 1943. It was in Kiev district. In late July 1941, Sondercommander detachment 4a shot 14 Jews. In autumn 1941, about 90-100 Jews were shot in Makarov. The executioners were 20 Germans and local policemen who arrested their neighbors. In the first part of September 1941, groups of 7, 10, and 17 Jews were shot in Makarov by the German field gendarmerie in the garden of the former Jewish collective farm “Revival”. There were communists among the victims as well. The Jews who were arrested were kept in the barn in the yard of a former district executive committee. This office served as the temporary headquarters of the German field gendarmerie. In November 1941, anothe shooting took place. During this shooting 30 Jews were killed. Their belongings were taken into the house of Vinnitskii who was shot. All the Jewish belongings were sold to the local population. There were Jews who didn’t manage to evacuate in time in the territory of the district.

Holocaust mass grave in Makarov

Holocaust mass grave in Makarov

There were Jews who didn’t manage to evacuate in time in the territory of the district. A Jewish family of four stayed at a local hospital in the village of Byshev. In July 1941, policemen arrested this family and shot them near the village of Kozichanka. After that they divided the families belongings amongst themselves. Still there were cases of opposition. In Lishnia village one of the policemen was escorting an arrested Jew who had escaped from German captivity to the police department in Bishev village. The latter attacked the policemen outside the village trying to steal his weapon. Another policeman ran up to help the colleague and killed the Jew.

More than 100 Jews died in Makarov and nearby villages.

In 1967, a monument was established in Makarov. The nationality of victims was not indicated.

Soviet memorial to perished civilians which was built in 50 meters from Holocaust mass grave.

Soviet memorial to perished civilians which was built in 50 meters from Holocaust mass grave.

The head of the local police Fedor (Bogdan) Skrobach was a member of nationalist organization ОUN (m) was an instigator who carried out the murder of Jews. Policemen I. Pavlovskii, G. Shulga,and I. Bozhok took an active part in the shootings. Skrobach and Pavlovskii were arrested and shot in 1950. Bozhok and Shulga were sentenced to 25 years in prison but they were freed 15 years later. They were prosecuted for having shot 39 Jews from Makarov.

The list of Holocaust victims was compiled by local historian Vitalii Hedz based on the SBU materials and the memories of old residents.

In 2005, a memorial to victims of the Holocaust was erected on the site of the mass grave. This memorial was paid for by local businessman, Vasilii Simonenko.

Lists of killed and honored Jewish soldiers of Soviet Army which were drafted from Makarov:

After the WWII

About ten Jewish families returned after the war. These families were: Spivak, Reznik, Shoikhet who worked in trade , Muchnik, Lerman who worked in military registration and enlistment office, Dudnik, Shufart, Kotliar who was the head of a cafe. Mariya Reznik lived according to Jewish traditions, visited Kiev synagogue regularly.

During Stalins anti-semitic campaigns “The struggle against rootless cosmopolitans” two Jews in Makarov were arrested, A.O. Ovrutslii and L.I Golubev. Both of them were sentenced to ten years in prison in 1948 and 1952.

Makarov Jewish WWII veterans, 1970's-1980's. Photo was found in local museum and provided by Vitaliy Hedz

Makarov Jewish WWII veterans, 1970’s-1980’s. Photo was found in local museum and provided by Vitaliy Hedz

The number of the Jews was reduced because of mixed marriages and immigration.

The community was organized in the early 1990’s. Its first head was Mariya Solomonovna Reznik, then Katerina Frayevich, and Nina Kochetova was afterwards.

The majority of Makarov Jews left for Israel in the 1990’s-2000’s. Most of the eldery residents of Makarov have passed away. As 2017 about 10 Jews lived in Makarov.

Members of Makarov Jewish community in 2000's

Members of Makarov Jewish community in 2000’s

Genealogy

The fire of 1865 destroyed 50 Jewish houses. Because the fire destroyed so much Jewish property an application for the postponement of state loans was written to district authorities in order for the Jews to fund the rebuilding of their community. This document was signed by the following Jewish residents: Epelboim Mordukh, Fasovetskii Itsko, Ovrutskii Ovshey Srulevich, Radovskii Peysakh, Sabashkevich Shulim, Kurogodskii Nukhim, Leshberg Shmul, Sabashkevich Borukh, Skliarevskii Aron, Belednitskii Ios, Futortsa … Aba, Borispolskii Ovshii, Galodnitskii, Vaksberg Avrum, Krivitskii Moshko, Khabinskii Naftula, Galatsovskii Chaim, Ovrutskii Peysakh, Liudmirskii Gersh, Liudmirskii Berko, Kalinovskii Yankel, Knizhnik Sh., Taver Ovsey, Ovrutskii Berko, Ovrutskii Mikhel, Tsufalskiy Elia, Tverskiy Moshe, Veitsman, Taver Moshko, Rabinovich, Karabitsnis Mendel, Skliarevskii, Manbibarg Zusman, Yadnovskii Leiba, Itsnovskii Leiba, Veitsman Ia, Kondranskii Moshe Tsvi, Chakan Nukhim, Ladmirskii Leib, Ostrovskii David. This document is kept in Kiev archive.

Famous Jews from Makarov

Isak Doorinsky (1891-1973, Paris), a French painter
Moyshe Tolchin (1895-1953, Chicago), a writer who wrote in Yiddish

Old Makarov Jewish cemetery

It was destroyed in 1960’s. Some graves were transferred to Jewish section of municipal cemetery. Grave of Rebbe Menachem Nachum Tversky (1805, Chernobyl – 1852, Makariv) was restored by Rabbi Meir Gabai in 2003-2004.

New Makarov Jewish cemetery

There is a Jewish section in the municipal cemetery. There are around 40 well-maintained gravestones. Jewish section surrounded by christian’s graves.

Comments

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One Comment

  1. From the bottom of my heart I am thankful for your work.

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