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Narodichi

Narodichi
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Naroditch (Yiddish), Naroditschi (German), Narodychi (English), Narodyci, Bolshie Narodichi, Narodycze (Polish), Народичи – Narodichi (Russian), Народичі – Narodychi (Ukrainian)

Narodichi has been classified as a city since 1958. It is a regional center in the Zhytomyr region of Ukraine. It is known from the XV century. In the XVI-XVIII centuries it was a shtetl in the Ovruch povit of Kyiv province within the Commonwealth, which became a part of the Russian Empire in 1793. In the XIX to early XX century it was in the Ovruch district of Volyn province. In the 1930‘s it was the center of the Jewish national district.

Beginning

The first mention of a Jewish community in Narodichi was in 1683.  In 1875 the chief rabbi of Narodichi was Elia-Leib Juravel (1847 – ? ).

The main occupations of the Jewish population in XIX – early XX century were crafts and trade.
Jews owned the only pharmacy, the two bakeries, all 9 hotels, a mill and 44 shops in Narodichi. They also owned all 24 grocery shops, all 3 butcher shops, all 9 light industry shops and the only shoe store. The only one dentist in Narodichi was a Jew. In the late XIX century emigration of Jewish population to USA and another Western countries began.

Narodichi enterpreneurs in 1913:

On January 13, 1919 Stroock and Lazenyuk gangs ruined Jewish homes and get extorted 20000 rubles.

After Revolution

I find this report on JDC-website, it gives good description of Jewish life in Narodichi in the 1920’s 

Report on Narodichi, Volyn Gubernia

Nahum and Mordehai Vaisblat. Main Rabbis of Zhitomir and Kiev. Born in Narodichi

Nahum and Mordehai Vaisblat. Main Rabbis of Zhitomir and Kiev. Born in Narodichi

Narodiсhi is in the Ovruch yezd and situated in fifty versts from the railway Korosten station. Before the pogroms it had a total population of 4000, of whom 2500 were Jews. At present the population is the same. In 1919 Harodichi suffered from a number of pogroms at the hands of various bands, which resulted in 15 being murdered and 13 wounded. Almost all of the movable property was pillaged and robbed. The town now has 20 widow, 20 full orphans, 50 half orphans and 30 invalids. Formerly Narodichi was a lively trading town. It had 50 tanneries, 70 shops and there were several sawmills near the town, all of which enabled the inhabitants to warn a decent livelihood. At present there are only nine tanneries in operation, the saw mills are not working and only 17 shops are open.

Existed institutions: Jewish Public School Jewish Public Schools Started in 1920 by Narobraz, and is maintained from funds collected from the Jews. 146 children receive instruction here, ranging in age from 7 – 13. 7 from them are full orphans , 27 half orphans and 112 with parents living. The majority of children come from very poor family. The school is badly in need of school supplies and equipment.

General Professional – Technical School It has two divisions-building and woodcutting. The school is supervised by the Gubernia Professional Bureau. There are 37 pupils from 15 to 20 years of age, of whom 22 are Jews. The school is need of appliances, stationary and some funds for the organization of a scientific cabinet.

Basya-Rahuma Shloimovna Lerman. Photo made in Narodichi. From Archiv of Kiev Judaica Institute

Basya-Rahuma Shloimovna Lerman. Photo made in Narodichi. From Archiv of Kiev Judaica Institute

Medical There is a hospital which is supervised by the Yezdzrav and receives funds from the District Ispolkom. The premises of the hospital are suitable for its purposes. It has 30 beds, 10 for infectious diseases, 5 for surgical, 7 for gynecological and 8 for therapeutical. There is a lack of linen, and it does not receive an adequate amount of food. Connected with the hospital is a dispensary, which takes care from 15 to 20 persons daily. Medicaments are delivered free of charge only to members of Processional Unions. In November, 1922, hospital received 9 blankets, 17 pairs of slippers and some medical supplies from the ARA. The hospital is need of repairs, organization of bathing facilities, room for disinfection and foodstuffs.

Agricultural About 25 families work from four to five dessiatins of land each, a total of 117 dessiatins. Most of the agriculturists are former primitive workers, tanners, and traders who have taken to the soil. Some of them have live stock, but almost no equipment. This group at one time intended to organize a colony on their land, which is situated about four versts from the town, but the civil war and pogroms prevented them from carrying this plan into effect. They have received the following from the ORT: 2 plows, 163 poods of oats, 2 cultivators, 29 poods of barley, 2 harrows, 12 poods of buckwheat, 9 horses.

Jewish population of Narodichi:
1765 – 241 jews
1847 – 978 jews
1897 – 2054 (44,8%)
1923 – 2398 jews
1926 – 2508 jews
1939 – 1233 (18%)
1947 ~ 100 jews

In 1925 there acted “He – Halutz” movement. In 1925 Jews from Narodichi founded collective farm “Red worker ” (102 persons) in Kherson Jewish agricultural district.

In the 1920’s – 1930’s many Jews left Narodichi and resettled to Kiev and other big cities of Soviet Union.

Holocaust

Narodichi was occupied by Wehrmacht at August 22, 1941. Locals began to robber Jewish property from the first day of occupation.  Head of a police became Hrenovskiy.

At August 28, 1941 the Germans together with local Ukrainian nationalists, who showed where Jews lives, began to cast them out. Babies were left to lonely old men.

First "action" Holocaust Mass grave in Narodichi. From atomsofremembrance.org.ua

First “action” Holocaust Mass grave in Narodichi. From atomsofremembrance.org.ua

All Jews were herded into a country club – House of Culture and Ukrainian nationalists beat them on the way to this building. There they were registered and posted in separate rooms:  men, women and children.

At ten o’clock August 29, 1941  fifty men from the club were forced to dig a big pit outside of town. After police lunch, men and then women from club began take out. Before landing on cars Jews were mercilessly beaten by sticks. Car moved people to prepare pit where all were shot. In the afternoon rain started and alive  children were released. In that terrible day were killed up to 600 (from some sources among them were 250 children and 4 teachers). Only feeble old men, some women and children stay alive – only two hundred and fifty persons.

Second "action" Holocaust Mass grave on Jewish Cemetery in Narodichi

Second “action” Holocaust Mass grave on Jewish Cemetery in Narodichi

All remained Jews were moved to one street (ghetto) not far from local police. Conditions were terrible and almost every day some person die, especially children. Second “action” took place at November 16, 1941 when all remaining Jews (370 people) were shot at the territory of Jewish Cemetery, children were killed and buried in separated mass grave. Massacre was organized and carried out only by local Ukrainian police without participation of German troops.

Details about Holocaust in Narodichi were taken from memoirs of Semen Fridman.

Narodichi was liberated by Red Army at November 11, 1943. For crimes again Jews were convicted head of police Hrenovskiy (shot), Kostruba (25 years in prison), brothers Bessmertniy (25 and 10 years). But many killers fled and were not punished.

After WWII

After the WWII about 100 Jews returned to Narodichi.

Gate to Narodichi Jewish Cemetery

Gate to Narodichi Jewish Cemetery

The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 had an extremely negative impact on all spheres of life in Narodychi. According to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated July 23, 1991 Narodichi was evacuated and was one of the worst hit areas by the radiation, affecting some 93,000 people in the Narodichi town and surrounding raion, 20,000 of which were children.[This led to the cessation of all industrial enterprises and one of two secondary schools were closed. On the streets of Narodichi are many abandoned houses and dilapidated buildings of educational and medical institutions, etc. In 2005 small number of Jews lived in Narodichi .

Vital functions of the town however are gradually being established and in 2013 there lives about 2500 people.

Places

Jewish Cemetery

Located at the north-western part of the settlement. It was founded in the end of XIX century and acted during all XX century. Holocaust memorial monument was erected there in 2012.

Jewish woman near Mass Grave in Narodichi, 1950's. Is it grave outside town or on the Jewish Cemetery?

Jewish woman near Mass Grave in Narodichi, 1950’s. Is it grave outside town or on the Jewish Cemetery?

At this site I found information that during second “action” in November 16, 1941 children were killed and burried in separate grave. Jews marked this place after the war by small wooden house which was surrounded by metal fence. Time destroy this monument and unknown people stole the fence. According to information in article at 2011 this grave was still unmarked on the cemetery.

Holocaust Mass grave

Grave locates in 1 km to the north, near the road to Norinci village. Memorial was erected in 2005 for the cost of Kharkov businessman Feldman.

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