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Radomyshl

Radomyshl
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Radomishel (Yiddish), Radomishl, Radomyszl, Radomyschl (German), Radomyshl’ (Ukrainian), Radomysl’ (Russian), Radomyśl (Polish)

Radomyshl is a historic city in the Zhytomyr Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Radomyshl Raion (district), and is located on the left bank of Teteriv River, a right tributary of Dnieper River.

In 1897 Radomyshl was a city with large Jewish community – 7502 persons (69% of total population) which is one of the biggest in Kiev Gubernia after Berdichev (41617 Jews), Kiev (31801 Jews), Uman (17943 Jews), Belaya Tserkov (18720 Jews), Cherkassy (10950 Jews) and Skvira (8908).

Jewish places in Radomyshl:

Beginning

Jews have lived in Radomyshl since XVI century. During the Khmelnytsky upraising was plunder and Jewish population exterminated. After this Jews began to settle in Radomyshl only in first part of XVIII century.

In 1750 Haidamak’s squad ransacked house of Jewish tenant. In 1754 Radomyshl was plunder again – Jewish shops burned and 4 Jews were killed.

Radomyshl map by 1913

Radomyshl map by 1913

With the partition of Poland in 1793, Radomyshl was transferred to Russia, and became a district center of the Volhynia (1795) and then Kiev (1797-1925) gubernias.

In 1801 Radomyshl were 6 merchants.

In 1839 hairdresser A.Lazebnik was accused of murdering a Christian girl for ritual purposes. The trial ended in defendant acquittal.

PreRrevolution building in Radomyshl

PreRrevolution building in Radomyshl

There were seven synagogues in Radomyshl at 1845. Among the Jews there were 94 merchant. Jews traded wood and wool. In 1856 there were 4 header in Radomyshl, in 1873 – one-class Jewish secondary school.

In 1878 Rabbi was Mordkhe – Yisroel Beregovskiy ( ? -1900), since 1900 – his son , Baruch-Bentzion (1867 – ? ) . In 1890 – beginning 1900’s official rabbi in was Sender Yakovlevich Grinshpun .
In 1892 there was a Jewish hospital ( head of the hospital – Zweiffel ), acted 1 synagogues and 6 Jewish prayer houses.

Editorial office of newspaper "Radomyshlyanin". Feldman (editor) and Pekar (printer) lived in same building.

Editorial office of newspaper “Radomyshlyanin”. Feldman (editor) and Pekar (printer) lived in same building.

In the end of XIX century Hasidic court was founded by Avrom-Yehoshua-Heschel Tversky ( ? -1919 ). In 1914, the dynasty was continued by his son Enoch-Geneh ( 1886-1971 , Jerusalem).

Jewish population of Radomyshl:
1797 – 1424 (56,4%)
1847 – 2734 jews
1897 – 7502 (69%)
1910 – 10 450 (69,6%)
1926 – 4637 jews
1939 – 2348 (20,1%)
1989 – 49 (0,3%)
2015 ~ 10 jews

In 1899 there were three bookstores with Jewish books. In 1900, Jews owned 2 printing house. In 1902-1904 there appeared Bund organization. At February 15, 1905 its members have organized a first strike.

In the beginning of XX many Jews left Radomyshl and emigrated to other countries. In 1904 the Radomyshl fraternity in the United States created charitable organization “Radomysler unterzitsung vereyn .” In 1908, in Radomyshl worked “Society for Child Care of the poor Jews.” In 1910 there were Talmud Torah , 3 man’s and 2 woman’s secondary schools, 12 synagogues, society for help to poor Jews, Jewish cemetery.

Aquarel with Radomyshl synagogue in the center. Synagogue was burn during a big fire in the beginning of 1920's

Aquarel with Radomyshl synagogue in the center. Synagogue was burn during a big fire in the beginning of 1920’s

In 1912 there worked Jew savings and loan society. To Jews belonged a large number of stores, shops and industrial enterprises. There were 161 Jewish artisans out of a total of 198. In 1914 official Rabbi was the grandson of the Tzemach Tzedek Aron-Mendel Nokhum – Zalmanovich Schneerson (1886 – ? ). He was the owner and director of the Jewish school.

Building of former Jewish secondary school in Radomyshl

Building of former Jewish secondary school in Radomyshl

Radomyshl enterpreneurs list from Russian Empire Business Directories by 1913:

English translation of these names you can find here.

In 1913 existed Jewish Hospital (doctor Tzveyfel Kas. Leyz. ). Head of the Jewish 2-grade spesialized school was Krivoglaz Avr. Bor, teachers – Fainberg Nauk Solomonovich, Eidenzon Abr. Gr., Zabyalotskiy Mark Aaron., Labynskiy Ef. Osip., Gercenshteyn Is. Nat., Grishenko Andrey Pavlovich, school doctor – Tzveyfel Kas’yan Lazarovich.

Building of former Jewish Hospital. Now it is kindergarten on Str. Miskradi

Building of former Jewish Hospital. Now it is kindergarten on Str. Miskradi

In 1914, Kiev governor visited Radomyshl with official visit. He visited Jewish Hospital where main members of Jewish community met him. There were rabby M.N. Shneerson, M.G. Gorenshtein, E.I.Zaezdniy, Y. Pekar and Chekis. The Chief Doctor Kasiayn Lazarevich Tsveifel made the report to governor.

Civil War

Pogroms took places in Radomyshl at February 18, 1919 and March 12-13, 1919 arranged by military units of Directory, at 23-31 March 1919 – by Sokolowski gang. In May 1919, the Sokolovsky gang organized in Radomyshl another pogrom when about 400 Jews were killed and several thousands escaped to other cities and towns.

Local historian Alexandr Pirogov estimate number of pogrom victims in 720 Jews.

Rabbi Mordechai Yisroel Twersky , son of Rabbi of Radomyshl Abraham Joshua Heshel Twersky. Both were killed during pogrom in May 1919

Rabbi Mordechai Yisroel Twersky , son of Rabbi of Radomyshl Abraham Joshua Heshel Twersky. Both were killed during pogrom in May 1919

Here I find description of small episode of a great Jewish grief:

Then came the massacre of Radomysel. Refugees arrived in Kiev bringing with them fourteen orphans who had each lost both parents in the massacre. All day the children were driven in a wagon all over the city, and the people showered them with gifts. Among the refugees from Radomysel were a boy of 9 named Itsikel and his little sister.

The lad’s mother, grandfather, and grandmother were killed. When the murderer’s entered the house, he put his little sister upon his shoulders, fastened her with strap and carried her off to a neighbor’s house; then he ran for a doctor. But the murderers would not admit the doctor; so the little boy climned through a window and bandaged the wounds of the dying if not already dead.

Monument on pogrom victims grave. Radomyshl Jewish Cemetery

Monument on pogrom victims grave. Radomyshl Jewish Cemetery

Radomyshl Landsmanshafts in USA

There was a Radomyshl landsmanshaft in Chicago, the Radomyshler Unterstitzung Verein or R.U.V., which owned a cemetery plot there.  Sidney Sorkin’s book “Bridges to an American City,” about Chicago landsmanshaftn, contains the following information:
RADOMISHLER LADIES AID SOCIETY
Incorporated on February 17, 1937 and again on May 15, 1941.
RADOMISHLER UNTERSTEITZUNG VEREIN CEMETERY: Menorah Gardens; Sexton, Lebovitz & Co., Inc. References: AJC 1939, JPI Yearbook, Piser Guide, Shtetl Finder.
The Radomishler Untersteitzung Verein was founded in 1901, and in the course of its existence there were a Ladies Aid Society and a Ladies Auxiliary. The Aid Society was incorporated in 1937 and the following women were the trustees: Goldie Feinerman, Rebecca Auerbach, Sarah Share, Rose Dacks, Anna Weitzman, Sarah Siegel, and Anna Cagan. The trustees of the Auxiliary were Eva Winer, Bertha Sigland, Bessie Klinsky, Sophie Gelfand, Laudy Solganick, Bertha Rosenberg, Sophie Kushner, Lillian Brodsky, Bessie Lisker, Mary Cagan, and Mollie Kessler.
A full page advertisement was in the AJC 1939 yearbook, with a greeting from the R. U. V. The officers, board and various committee members are listed below:
VEREIN OFFICERS
H. Baines, Ex-President; H. Brodsky, Vice-President; M. Cagan, Financial Secretary; L. Rosenberg, Inside Guard; L. Gelfand, Legal Advisor; A. Bernick, President; E. Gelfand, Treasurer; D. Shapiro, Recording Secretary; D. Winer, Hospitaler; S. Finerman, Board of Candidates.
CEMETERY BOARD
H. Kushner, Chairman; A. Dacks, Treasurer; D. Winer, Superintendent; Irving Abrams, Legal Advisor; L. Kessler, H. Zindel, H. Klinsky, Trustees; E. Gelfand, Vice-Chairman; A. Wernick, Secretary; S. Finerman, Asst. Superintendent.
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
H. Brodsky was the Chairman of the Executive Committee, and D. Shapiro was the Secretary. The other members were S. Kopp, M. Schechtman, H. Klinsky, J. Solganick, Max Siegel, and Kay Winer. The other Trustees listed were L. Kessler, H. M. Cohen, and M. Friedman. Mrs. Weitzman was sister of the Sick. The vital Distress Committee consisted of I. Gelfand, M. Litovsky and J. Share. Dr. J. Fishman, of 3802 W. Roosevelt Road, was the Medical Examiner. This is the first organization to list two legal advisors, one for the verein and one for the cemetery. The presence of a medical examiner would indicate that they also had a beneficial program.

After Civil War

On JDC web site were mentioned few Jewish institutions in the beginning of 1920’s – 6 schools and 2 workshops (here), Home for aged Jews (here).

There was a synagogue in Rysanivska Str. It burned during big fire in 1921

There was a synagogue in Rysanivska Str. It burned during big fire in 1921

In 1920 there acted 6 synagogues. In 1928 there were about 80 pupils in heders.

In 1926 Radomyshl Rabbi B.Beregovsky participated in the Congress of the rabbis in Korosten. In the 1930’s there was closed synagogue. In the end of 1930’s were closed Jewish school.

Last building of Jewish prayer house in Miskradi Str.

Last building of Jewish prayer house in Miskradi Str.

In 1926 there were 4,637 Jews (36 percent of the total population) in Radomyshl, their number declining by 1939 to 2,348 (20 percent of the total population).

Jewish collective farm existed in Radomyshl.

Holocaust

Radomyshl was occupied by Wehrmacht at July 9, 1941. Approximately 72-73% of pre-war Jewish population haven’t evacuated and stay in city. Ghetto was established according to order of military administration. All Jews were resettled  on one street where 15 persons were crowded per room (here were deported Jews from surrounding areas too). They were prohibited to buy food and leave ghetto territory. Ukrainians were prohibited to help Jews. Jews were required  to ware bandage on his left hand with yellow David star.

Chernobylskaya Str.: there was a Jewish ghetto during WWII

Chernobylskaya Str.: there was a Jewish ghetto during WWII

Jewish mans were forced to slavery labor and undergo beatings and humiliation by local police.

At August 5, 1941 Radomyshl commandant  asked  Sonderkommando 4a to “clean up city”. Arrived regiment killed 113 people (number of Jews among them is unknown but they were a majority). In several days this command killed 163 Jews, party functionary and komsomol members.

At Standartenfuhrer SS Paul Blobel ordered to liquidate ghetto and on September 6 a unit of Sonderkommando 4A murdered 1,107 adults, and the Ukrainian auxiliary police murdered 561 children.

Radomyshl was liberated by Red Army at November 14, 1943.

Alexander Pirogov find next list of Holocaust victims in Archiv:

Same list in English: http://radomyshl.lk.net/victlist.html
Another list was compiled from Yad Vashem: http://radomyshl.lk.net/yadvshem.html

I find only one name of Holocausr survival – Klavdiya Kogan.

After WWII

After the war next Jewish families returned to Radomyshl: Press, Galinskiy, Krinitskiy, Modalevskiy, Shinkov, Korostyshevskiy, Dudkin, Dybinskiy, Novak, Kaganovskiy, Gehtman, Temnorod, Larin, Koritniy, Blinder, Kaganskiy, Roitman, Tsepenuk, Dvortsoviy, Radomyselskiy, Shvartsman and Vaintryb.

In Soviet times Jews were prohibited from gathering at the graves, since the militia claimed that for them to do so was to cause a “demonstration.” Jews were also forbidden to erect a monument to the dead. In 1970 the Jewish population was estimated at about 250.

In 2013 small number of Jews lives in Radomyshl, most of them are aged people. Unoficial Head of community is Yacob Press.

Video from execution site about monument erection:

Genealogy

Holocaust mass graves in forest

There are located 4 mass graves which marked by small memorials which were erected in different times.
Local historian Alexander Pirogov remind that in 1960’s he found remains of clothes and children’s shoes in small heaps near the graves…

Jewish Cemetery

The cemetery is located on the northwest of the town between the Miskradi Street and 40 rokiv Peremohy Street.

Size of the cemetery is 100m x 300m.

Cemetery was founded in XIX century. Previous cemetery was located in Velika Zhitomirskaya Street and was destroyed in the end of XIX – beginning of XX century.

 

Famous Jews from Radomyshl

Boris Abramovich Kryvoglaz (December 25, 1893, Radomyshl – August 1978, Kyiv) – Doctor of Medicine, professor, one of the founders of occupational health care in Ukraine.

Boris Abramovich Kryvoglaz

Boris Abramovich Kryvoglaz

Velednytskiy Abram Markovich (October 29, 1894– October 19, 1959, Kyiv), a literary theory expert, was a victim of Stalinist purges. He was born on October 29, 1894 in a family of a Radomyshl worker and spent his childhood there. He studied law at Kyiv University. In June 1919 he joined the Red Army as a volunteer. After the war he returned to Kyiv, but he found his law degree no longer relevant so he took up linguistics and began to write and publish poetry in Jewish periodicals. The first collection of his poems called “Clarification” was published in 1922. Then he published a book of poetry “Arrival” (1928), and “With my young class” (1932). In 1935 he graduated from the Institute of Jewish Culture at the Academy of Sciences of USSR. He received his doctorate in 1947.

Grigoriy Olexandrovych Korin (nom de guerre of Hodel Shabiyovych Korenberg, born on May 9, 1926 in Radomyshl, died on June 5, 2010), a Russian poet. His family and siblings suffered during the Bolshevik purges of 1930s. They were forced to leave Radomyshl and move to Baku. During the war he served at the front. After the war Korin worked in the publishing industry. He published several collections of poetry.

Grigoriy Olexandrovych Korin

Grigoriy Olexandrovych Korin

Ryva Naumivna Balyasna (March 8, 1910, Radomysl – October 1, 1980, Kyiv), a Soviet Jewish poet, arrested and exiled during Stalinist purges.

Ryva Naumivna Balyasna

Ryva Naumivna Balyasna

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One Comment

  1. Виталий, спасибо большое от имени всех выживших радомышльских евреев за Ваш труд. Я бежал из Радомышля вместе с матерью и тремя младшими братьями в июле 1941 года, мне было около 9 лет. Но подавляющее большинство евреев осталось и их, в том числе десятки моих родственников, постигла страшная судьба. Я живу в Израиле 25 лет и работаю гидом. Эта работа сдружила меня с доктором Комендантом, главой Библейского Общества Украины, выдающимся челоловеком и гуманистом. Я рассказал ему о трагедии, происшедшей в сентябре 1941 года в лесу под Радомышлем и он глубоко проникся ею. Памятник, воздвигнутый над костями зверски убитых детей – его рук, воли и души ДЕЛО! Ему низкий поклон!
    С уважением Аркадий Луковский

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