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Skvira

Skvira
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Skver, Skvir, Skwere (Yiddish Transliteration), Skwira (Polish), Сквира – Skvira (Russian), Сквира – Skvyra (Ukrainian), סקווירא (Yiddish)

Skvyra is a town in the Kiev Oblast (province) of central Ukraine.  It is the administrative center of the Skvyrskyi Raion (district), and is currently a regional municipality.

First Jewish inhabitants

Jewish population of Skvyra:
1775 – 116 Jews
1847 – 2,184 Jews
1897 – 8,910 (49.5%)
1926 – 4,681 (33.6%)
1939 – 2,243 Jews
1950 ~ 1,000 Jews
1960 ~ 500 Jews
2009 ~ 120 Jews

The ancient town of Skvyra was completely destroyed at the end of the 16th century. In 1736, Skvyra was mentioned as a village (selo) leased to a Jewish tenant. According to the census of 1765, there were 124 houses in Skvyra, 51 of which belonged to Jews. In 1775, 116 Jews lived in Skvyra, in 1784 this figure rose to 204, and in 1787, to 144.

In the early nineteenth century the court of the Chernobyl Hasidic dynasty was in Skvyra. It was founded by Rabbi Yitzchak of Skvyra (1812-1885), one of the younger sons of Rabbi Motel Tversky (1770-1838). After his father’s death in 1838, he spent several years at the court of his elder brother in Chernobyl, and in early 1840 moved to Skvyra, where he founded a separate court. The Skvirsky court gathered thousands Hasidim for high holidays but Rabbi Yitzhak almost never left the town.

After the death of Rabbi Yitzhak his court was headed by his son Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel of Skvyra (1826-1886), then Abraham’s sun – Rabbi Moshe Dan of Skvyra (? – Kiev, 1920). The next Skvir Rabbi became his son Rabbi Yitzchak of Skvira (Skvira, 1886 – Tel Aviv, 1986). Other sons of Abraham Joshua Heschel held the Skvirskaja Hasidic courts in Ilintsy and Mahnovka.

Skvira map, 1914-1922

Skvira map, 1914-1922

Rabbi Isaac, the second son of Rabbi Ytzchak, had several sons, one of whom Rabbi Menachem Nachum of Shpikova (? – 1887) lived in Shpikove and Raschkow, the third son Rabbi David (? – 1920, Kiev) and his children lived in Kiev.

After Skvyra was included in the Pale of Settlement, the town’s Jewish community increased. Its Jewish population was 2,184 in 1847 and grew to 8,910 in 1897 — 49.5% of the general population. At the end of the 19th century Skvyra had seven synagogues, a parochial school, a hospital, a pharmacist and a district doctor. Many Jews were engaged in grain and timber export. In the end of 19 century there were 7 Jewish prayer houses.

In 1912 S. An-skiy visited Skvyra during his ethnographic expedition. According to his records, the Hasidic court of Skvyra had declined and lost his prior glory by the time of his visit.

By 1910 the town had a Talmud Torah, a Jewish private boys’ school and two private girls’ schools. In 1913 Yampolskiy Usher Genzelevich was the town’s rabbi.

Skvyra businessmen in 1913:

Civil War pogroms

There were two pogroms in the town in 1917 and a wave of six pogroms in 1919, some of which lasted for several weeks. Rapes were committed, houses were burnt down, and Jewish property was seized and destroyed or sold to local peasants, with 191 people killed and hundreds injured.

1st pogrom: On 23 October 1917 local peasants pillaged Jewish shops (no casualties).
2nd pogrom: In February 1919 it was organised by the troops of Simon Petlura, fighting for Ukrainian independence (15 victims).
3d pogrom: Organised by the Red Army and casualty-free but many Jews left destitute
4th pogrom: Organised by the Ukrainian People’s Army troops, led by Yu. Tyutyunnyk and Zheleznyak and went on for 10 days. 56 Jews were murdered, among them the members of self-defence unit.
5th and 6th pogroms: In September 1919 organised by the Petlura troops, 55 Jews murdered.
7th pogrom: Went on during October and November 1919, organised by local thugs, killing 5 Jews.
8th pogrom: Was organised by the troops of the White (Anti-Bolshevik) Army, led by Denikin, 60 Jews were killed and 300 injured, many women raped. All Jewish shops were looted by local peasants.

Following the pogroms, an epidemic broke out, killing up to 30 people daily, most Jews decided to flee to Kiev, Odessa and Belaya Tserkov.

Yeshiva building in Skvyra. Photo by S.An-sky on 1912. In the past this building housed the Hasidm court of Skvyra.

Yeshiva building in Skvyra. Photo by S.An-sky on 1912. In the past this building housed the Hasidm court of Skvyra.

After Civil War

I find this report on JDC Archiv website, it gave wide description of Skvira Jewish community state in beginning of 1920’s:

AMERICAN JOINT DISTRIBUTION COMMITTEE RUSSIAN UNIT. REPORT ON SKVIRA, BELOTZSRKOV UYESD, KIEV GUBRNIA

The $100 received from the Skvira landsmanschaft, as per LHD R-52, was distributed in the following order: – 120 poods of Matzo flour was purchased by the representative of the J. D. G. in consultation with, several representative citizens and distributed same among 79 needy families. – The balance of 1.500 million roubles (about $30) was given to the children homes for repair and purchase of inventory for their workrooms.

Mass grave of pogrom victims in Skvira Jewish cemetery. Photo beginning of 1920's

Mass grave of pogrom victims on Skvira Jewish cemetery. Photo beginning of 1920’s

List of beneficiaries and signatures of recipients for flour distributed are attached hereto. Skvira was formerly an Uyesd center, but the center has now been removed to Belaya Tzerkov. The number of the population before, the pogroms was 25,000 now 20,000. Jews before the pogroms 15,000 but now – 10,000. Number of shops before pogroms – 350. Fifty houses were sold to peasants by Jews who escaped from town at the time of pogroms.

Before the pogroms Skvira was quite a commercial and industrial center. It had 8 mills, 8 oil churns and 6 sugar factories in and near the town.

Skvira has suffered of 8 pogroms, the worst of which took place in autumn of 1919 by the Tutunik bands. The total of Jews killed in the pogroms is 608, wounded 392 and violated about 350. The entire population was robbed, pillaged and economically ruined.

Mass grave of pogrom victims on Skvira Jewish cemetery. Photo beginning of 1920's

Mass grave of pogrom victims on Skvira Jewish cemetery. Photo beginning of 1920’s

AT PRESENT THERE ARE:

Jewish Widows 250 Orphans 256 Half-Orphans 350 Individuals who lost their working ability 130

Among the population there are also 80 refugee families from the following neighboring towns: Borchagovka (10 families), Kornin (5 families), Tetiev (10 families), Volodarka (10 families), Novo-Fastov and other places (45 families).

The population is chiefly engaged in small trade and small industry, yet the greater part of the artisans are unemployed and have to earn their scanty living in small trade. Owing to the removal of the Uyesd from Skvira, the number of unemployed, intellectual workers has increased considerably.

INSTITUTIONS IN SKVIRA : 1. Skvira has two Orphan’s Homes for 72 children (59 full orphans and 13 half orphans) 2. Public School for 140 children 3. House for aged with 19 inmates 4. Bath-House totally destroyed 5. Hospital 6. Dispensary 7. Clinical institute which is for use for members of trade unions only.

Tailoring workshop in Skvira. Photo by 1920's

Tailoring workshop in Skvira. Photo by 1920’s

The Children Homes are supported by the Narobraz (Commissariat for Education) and subsidized, through the Evobkom, by the J. D. C. with food, clothing, shoes, fuel and cash for house repairs and additional equipment. The apartment of Children’s Home No. 2 is in very bad state and should be removed to other quarters but cannot be accomplished through lack of funds. The house where children home is located needs only small repairs. The Children Homes are poorly supplied with household inventory, underwear, clothing and shoes.

The public school apartments are also very much in need of repairs. The course of studies in the school are frequently being interrupted through lack of school appliances.

The Home for Aged is need of capital repairs. The commodities supplied by the “Sobez” (Commissariat for Social Relief) is very insufficient. The inmates were half starved. The food supplied by the J. D. C. relieved the situation temporarily.

The Bath-House is now being repaired by the Comkhoz (Municipality). In order to enable the needy Jews of the town to use it free of charge, a subsidy must be given to the Municipality.

The Hospital and Dispensary are supplied with very little means and medicine and do not issue any medicines free of charge. The needy population is, therefore, deprived of any medical assistance. In 1921 an agricultural cooperation has been organized in Skvira consisting of 17 refugee families from the neighboring pogormized places. The cooperation received 10 dessiatin of land from the Zemotdel (Commissariat for Agriculture).

In spite of the very difficult working conditions, without agricultural implements and other supplies, the cooperation accomplishes its harvest quite successful. But, not having any means of transportation, 500-600 poods of grain have been stolen from them. In March 1923 the J. D. C. has issued to the cooperation through 0RT: 1 harrow, 30 poods of oats, 50 poods of potatoes and vegetable seeds for 1/2 dessiatin of land.

The J. D. C. distributed to the neediest of the population in Skvira out of its own fund: 55 food remittance packages and 660 pieces of underwear.

Child Asylum №2 for pogrom orphans in Skvira. Photo by 1921 from book book “Yevreiskaya Atlantida” (“The Jewish Atlantis”) by Elena Tsvelik

Child Asylum №2 for pogrom orphans in Skvira. Photo by 1921 from book book “Yevreiskaya Atlantida” (“The Jewish Atlantis”) by Elena Tsvelik

Under the Soviet Union the religious and communal life of the Jews of Skvyra was dissolved.

The town’s Jewish population fell to 4,681 by 1926 (about 33.6% of the population) and 2,243 by 1939, but even so it remained among the biggest Jewish communities of Ukraine at that time.

Holocaust

In World War II German forces occupied the town at July 13, 1941. In July 15, 1941 Jews were ordered to ware David star and used to forced labor. In 2 weeks after occupation were killed 10 communists, among them were Jews. Judenrat was created for contribution gathering and exact Jews count. After complete of this task all members of Judenrat were killed.

Jews before killing. Skvira, September 21st 1941 - German photo

Jews before killing. Skvira, September 21st 1941 – German photo

During August-September 1941 the Einsatzgruppen 5 headquarters was in Skvyra ( head is Standartenfuhrer SS Schultz).  At the morning September 20, 1941 ( from another sources September 21, 1941) Jews were gathered near school on Bogachevskogo Street and shot in 3 pits on Jewish Cemetery. At that day were killed approximately 850 Jews. Building was constructed on mass grave. Second “action” took place at October 17, 1941 – 170 Jews were killed near stable of Raipotrebsouz. Last mass killings took place at November 19, 1941 and December 20, 1941.

Ukrainian women Agata Melnichyk from village Berezyanka saved jewish girl Luba Volodarskaya (now living in Israel) who escaped from Skvira under unknown circumstances.

Skvira was liberated by Soviet Army at December 29, 1943. During Holocaust there were killed 1230 Jews.

According to the head of Skvyra’s Jewish community, there were mass shootings of Jews in the area of the market, the secondary school and in Bannaya Street.

In archiv of Illya Levitas (1931-2014) I found a story of  Michail Bykov (1920-2000) and his family. They were gathered in the yard of school №2 together will all local Jews but escaped with help of friend from Ukrainian police. Michail became a member of partisan detachment and survived in Holocaust as his mother and sister.

Michail Bykov (in the middle) together with former partisans.

Michail Bykov (in the middle) together with former partisans after the war.

Skyvra’s remaining Jewish population was about 1,000 after the War and fell to about 500 by 1960. It has continued to decline, and in 2009 numbered 128.

Persons

Rabbi Itzhak of Skver, Menahem Nohum Tversky’s grandson (1812, Chernobyl – 1895, Skvyra), the founder of the Hasidic dynasty in Skvyra.

Ahad ha-Am

Ahad ha-Am

The Hasidic court of the Chernobyl dynasty was established in Skvyra at the beginning of the 1840s by Rabbi Itshak of Skver (1812-1885), one of the younger sons of Rabbi Motele Twersky (1770-1838). After Rabbi Itshak’s death, the court was headed by his son, Rabbi Avraam Yegoshua Geshel of Skver (1826-1886), and then by Rabbi Avraam’s son, Rabbi Moshe Dan of Skver (? – Kiev, 1920) and by his son, Rabbi Itshak of Skver (Skvyra, 1886 – Tel-Aviv, 1986). In the 1920s, after the pogroms, many Skver Hasids left Skvyra. The Skver Hasidic dynasty has continued to exist and grow in number in the United States, notably in the New Square (anglicisation of New Skvir) township in Rockland County, New York. After 1991, many Skver Hasids returned to Skvyra; in 2004 the synagogue and the tzaddik’s court were restored; there is now a hotel for Hasidic visitors in the tzaddik’s former residents.

Margulis David Lvovich

Margulis David Lvovich

Ahad ha-Am, writer and publicist (pen-name meaning “one of the people”; real name Asher Hirsh Gintsberg) (1856, Skvyra – 1927, Tel Aviv).

Yosef Shapiro, Yiddish writer, the author of “Skvirer hurbn” (“Skvyra catastrophe”, 1924), “Vergangenheit” (“The Past”, short stories about the Jewish pogroms in Ukraine, 1925), “Moschichische Personlichkeiten” (“Messianic Personalities”, 1931) (1902, Skvyra – 1978, Tel Aviv).

David Lvovich Margulis, Hero of the Soviet Union (Skvyra, 1914 – 1993, St. Petersburg).

Genealogy

Geneologist Boris Finkelshtein (bob-fink@yandex.ru) researched many Archiv documents related to Skvira Jewish population in XIX-XX century. He provided next surnames and documents names:

  • Skvira revision tale by 1850 (Archiv of Kiev oblast, file 280/2/1012) -257 surnames

Third guild merchants: Baraban Belogorodskaya  Weisberg  Wooleys  Gronshteyn Zaslavsky  Zozovsky  Kaplun  Kardash  Kotlyarskii  Krasniy  Kryvitsky  Labunskiy Logvinsky  Lodak  Natenzon  Olin  Pereltsvayg  Polyak  Roytbarg  Segal  Sirota  Strokov Trachtenberg  Faibishenko  Chariton  Khinchin  Cherniavsky  Shapira  Eidelman Yampolsky
Bourgeois Avrutsky  Akselrud  Alberkant  Balaban  Bezfamilny  Belilovsky  Belokopyt Benditovich  Berezovsky  Berlyand  Berner  Bespechansky  Blelfer  Bloch  Bobel Bogoslavskih  Borshchahivskiy  Bosin  Bril  Brodsky  Brudnik  Bryl  Brysylovsky  Bubar Bugai  Burdinsky  Burstein  Bykov  Bialik  Weinstein  Weisberg  Vaysburd  Vaks  Vaser Wachmann  Vilsky  Vinokur  Wolinsky  Galant  Galiotka  Gamarnik  Gimelshteyn Gitelmaher  Glatshteyn  Glaze  Goyhtul  Golden  Goldman  Gokhshtein  Grinbarg Greenberg  Groisman  Gruz  Gruzman  Gudzenko  Hutz  Gupner  Gurovich  Gusak  Gufan Dikhtyar  Domen  Domentovsky  Donskoy  Dubenskiy  Ermulnik  Erusalimsky Zhivotovsky Zhitman  Zhuravitsky  Zhuravlinsky  Zarudinetsky  Zeltsah  Zilevits  Zolotussky  Kagan Kamenyatsky  Kapler  Katz  Kaczynski  Kvyat  Keyzerman  Kigel  Kizhberg  Kirgel Kitaevskiy  Kleyzerman  Kleiman  Kozlowski  Kolman  Kolomeets  Kolominsky  Koltun Koretsky  Kosy  Kotlyar  Krantz  Krasniy  Kreynin  Krivitsky  Kubernik  Kupershtein Kuryanetsky  Kushnir  Labunskiy  Laynburd  Lev  Lewenstein  Lieberman  Lipinets  Litvak Luzhanska  Lukatskii  Lukashevsky  Lustenberg  Lutskiy  Lvovskiy  Lublinskiy  Lyubomsky Magdalinskiy  Mazur  Makarovskiy  Medvedovsky  Merbarg  Mizis  Mirgorodsky  Mlonchin Mysenznik  Nemerovsky  Novogradsky  Novofastovsky  Olin  Order  Orlik  Pack Petrikovskiy  Pinka  Pogorily  Pogrebysky  Polyak  Pasternak  Prokobovsky  Prus  Pteyh Ptuh  Pyatigorskiy  Rabinovich  Rayzburd  Rahman  Revich  Rovinskii  Royzenblyum Royzental  Royzentul  Romanovsky  Rohlis  Rudak  Rudnik  Ruzhynskiy  Rumennik Ruyaninsky  Salganik  Sapozhnik  Segal  Siry  Smuglyansky  Snitsarenko  Sobel  Sobol Stulsky  Suslik  Taborovsky  Taran  Tarashchansky  Tonkonogiy  Toporovsky  Torchinskiy Ulis  Fager  Faynburd  Fastovsky  Feldman  Figa  Finkovsky  Frenkel  Friedel  Fur  Hantsin Hasmenut  Hasminuy  Heylovsky  Khinchin  Khirman  Hirhel  Khmelnitsky  Khodorkovsky Hurman  Chervinskiy  Chernobylskiy  Chertok  Chorny  Chudnovsky  Shapira  Saffran Schwartz  Shvartsbarg  Shvartsburd  Schwartzman  Shvidky  Shiber  Shnaper  Shpektor Spiegel  Shraibman  Shtekelbarg  Shterin  Shtof  Shtulsky  Shtut  Shumsky  Eidelman Ekshtut  Elenkrant  Yufed  Yampolsky  Janiszewski

  • Skvira revision tale by 1858 (Archiv of Kiev oblast, files 280/2/1490,1491) – 230 surnames

Abramovich  Akslirud  Alberpont  Amboym  Balaban  Bareschevsky Begelfer  Bezfamilny Benditovich  Berezovsky  Berlend  Berner Bespechansky  Bililovsky  Bloch  Boben Boguslavskiy  Borshchahovskiy  Bosin  Brodsky  Brudnik  Brusilovsky  Bryl  Bubar  Buzhai Burdyansky  Burstein  Bykov  Bialik  Vayzberg  Weinstein  Vaks  Vaser  Vatnik  Vachmann Veksler  Vilsky  Vinokyr  Woks  Wolinsky  Wolff  Galant  Gamarnik  Gimelshteyn Gitelmaher  Gladshtein  Glas  Goyhtut  Goldenvaser  Goldman  Goldrah  Golodka Goldenberg  Golfand  Goreskiy  Gokhshtein  Grinbarg  Groisman  Gruzman  Gudzenko Gysak  Dekhtyar  Dolin  Domskiy  Dubenskiy  Duvidovich  Erusalimsky  Zhivotovsky Zhitman  Zhuravitsky  Zak  Zeltseh  Zilovets  Zolotusky  Kagan  Kamyanetsky  Kapler Kaplun  Katz  Kvyat  Keyzerman  Kinzbarg  Kitaevskaya  Kichinsky  Kleiman  Kleinman Kobernik  Kozlowski  Kolomiets  Koltun  Colman  Kosiy  Kotlyar  Krant  Krantz Krasnoselskiy  Krasniy  Kreynin  Krivitsky  Kuryanets  Kuryanitsky  Kushnir  Labunskiy Lev  Lowenstein  Lieberman  Lipinets  Litvak  Loytburd  Lomish  Luzhanskiy  Lukatskii Lukashevsky  Lustenberg  Lutskiy  Lublinskiy  Lyubomsky  Magdalinskiy  Mazur Makarovskiy  Medvedovsky  Mesberg  Meshbarg  Mizis  Mirgorodsky  Mlonchin Mosezhnik  Nemerovsky  Novogradsky  Nofohvastovsky  Ovrutsky  Olen  Order  Orlik  Pack Petrinovsky  Pinka  Pinkovsky  Ploschinsky  Pogorelyi  Pogrebysky  Polyak  Pasternak  Prus Ptah  Ptukh  Pyatigorsk  Rabinovich  Rayzburd  Revich  Royzembman  Royzenblyum Royzentol  Royzentul  Romanovsky  Romantovsky  Rohlis  Rohman  Rudak  Rudnik Ruzhynskiy  Rumennik  Siderman  Siry  Smol  Smulchisky  Sobol  Solganik  Spector Spitsarenko  Stulsky  Sumskiy  Suslik  Taborovsky  Taran  Tarashchansky  Tonkonogiy Toporovsky  Torchinskiy  Ulis  Faer  Faibishenko  Faynburd  Fastovsky  Feldman  Figa Flick  Freydel  Frenkel  Friedman  Furmandsky  Chariton  Hasshinuy  Herman  Khinchin Khirman  Hirshan  Hitovsky  Khmelnitsky  Khodorkovsky  Horiton  Chervinskiy Chernobylskiy  Cherniy  Chisnik  Chortok  Chudnovsky  Shapira  Saffran  Schwartz Shvartsburd  Schwartzman  Shvidky  Sheyngayt  Shenglayd  Shiber  Shnaper  Shraibman Shteren  Shtivelmaher  Shtikselberg  Shtof  Shtut  Eidelman  Ekshpun  Elinkrach  Yufid Yampolsky  Janiszewski  Yarmulnik

  • Skvira census by 1897 (Archiv of Kiev oblast, files 384/10/all) – more than 1100 surnames

File 2: Berlyand Bernstein Bubar Bystritskii Vaks Vaser Goldfain Gulkin Dah Dubinsky Kagan Kesner Kimbarg Koltyansky Komorowski Kotlyar Lev Lembergsky Leszczynski Mirshtat Moroz Nerubay Oberfeld Pliskovsky Polyak Rapoport Royzentul Rubalsky Starik Tartakovsky Fainburg Frenkel Henven Tsalenko Chervinskiy Cernik Chernyansky Shapira Spiegel Spiegelman

All names here

File 3: Bliznyuk Vaisburd Weinstein Weinstock Vakser Wisniewski Herman Gershenovsky Goldman Gohbarg Granovsky Kamenker Kisilevskii Klotsman Koretsky Kosov Krasniy Lev Neiman Ortenberg Ostrovsky Pavolotsky Pekelis Pogrebysky Polyak Pasternak Rabinovich Reizin Rudyak Sandlerman Sverdlik Solitra Sosnowski Trigub Feld Feldman Fishman Khinchin Tsisin Chernobylskiy Shtekelberg Shulimok Eidelman Yagnyatinskii

File 4: Barskiy Bilov Brener Bialik Volodarsky Vylis Gertsenshtein Gekhtman Goldich Goldfarb Hochman Granovsky Gulkin Diner Drogobytsky Dulitsky Zaharin Zolotusky Kamenetskii Katz Kovelman Koltun Krol Lerner Mazoray Matsekh Muchnik Novogradsky Ostrovsky Perelmutor Petlyuk Pikovskaya Rabinovich Rokah Friedel Fuchs Henven Khodorkovsky Chemirovsky Cherniy Chudnovsky Shapira Shklovsky Shmuskis Spiegelman Steinbarg Yampolsky File 5 Beylysh Bendetovich Bialik Vekslyarsky Vinokur Vishnepolsky Singer Kenis Korelman Kotlyarskii Leiner Luzhanska Milman Pogrebysky Pyatigorskiy Resnik Samgorodetsky Slobodyanskii Tonkonogiy Fainerman Hazinsky Shentsvid Schindler Spiegel

File 6: Gunzburg Gorodetsky Zenkovsky Krasniy Kuzynka Lieber Litvak Magit Nudel Pilipovsky Pogrebysky Rohtman Talalaivskiy Feldman Tsysin Chuhtman Spiegel Yampolsky

File 7: Altman Bellov Gimelfarb Goldenvasser Noskin Cherepinski Chubynsky File 8 Volotsky Heschel Goldveht Zozovsky Klubok Lev Lipskis Polyak Rabinovich Rosenblum Shapira

File 9: Byk Heschel Gorbatiy Grushko Dubovis Zheleznyak Zak Zozovsky Korostyshevsky Krakovskiy Krentsel Krieger Kutseno Lembergsky Lipelis Magid Maza Miropolsky Moldovan Pavolotsky Pikovsky Podolsky Polyak Portnoi Reybarg Raider Roydbak Roffman Sykulya Tsarovsky Shapira Safran Spiegel

File 10: Apter Avramsky Bokatovsky Bagel Weintraub Volodarsky Vulis Zhivotovsky Zhuravitskaya Zaslavsky Zolotussky Kivenko Kilimnik Kovelman Koltyn Koltin Loytske Lukashevsky Mezhbard Moldovan Nafak Nelek Pakentriger Peysya Rabinovich Raitsin Resnik Tonkonog Chariton Hinche Tsysin Cherkassky Shobal Yaroslav File 11 Barskiy Birbraev Weinman Vaysburd Zazovskii Menis Nudel Rosenthal Yuhtman File 12 Bronstein Vakhnenko Vilfand Katz Krasniy Olavyansky Revichkis Shteynebrg File 13 Dub Zhuravitsky File 15 Vayntrub Heller Kosoy File 17 Averbukh Alter Balyasniy Benditovich Vekslyarsky Vinnitskiy Vinokur Vihnenko Giverts Glatshteyn Gluzman Goldner Gorodetsky Dubinsky Dudnik Dybner Zhuravitsky Kanevskiy Keyzerman Kleiman Kogan Kolodyazhni Korotik Krantz Krasnov Lev Levovsky Libson Lisin Loytsker Lyubarskii Markvit Maslivsky Matz Mitnick Molyarsky Orgel Ostrovsky Paltievich Pecheniy Pogrebisky Polinovsky Polyak Rabinovich Rayzburg Suslik Starik Fraer Friedland Khinchin Tsisin Chubynsky Shvartsburd Shehet Shechtman Sholnik Shulyatsky File 18 Balaban Berlyand Bit Borodyansky Borshchahivskiy Brovarnik Bystritskii Weinstein Vinarsky Vishnivetsky Halperin Gladshtein Zhukovsky Zaydik Singer Kamenker Kinzberg Kilimnik Colman Kreinis Kurolannik Lyubomsky Matz Mitnick Muzharovsky Nemirovsky Novogrebelsky Oberfeld Olik Pack Pener Pikovskaya Rabinovich Rabets Rapoport Rosenblum Rosenfeld Rosohovetsky Rofman Serlest Segal Sinayuk Smulyansky Spector Spivak Srulevich Starominsky Stotland Strokovsky Trilesky Toporovsky Ylik Usherenko Feldman Fur Khinchin Khodorkovsky Chervinskiy Cherniy Shames Shapira Shvartsburd Steinberg Shtekelberg Ezril Yampolsky

File 19: Averbukh Aroub Berlyand Bogopolskii Borukhovich Bosin Budnitskii Bialik Weinberg Wisniewski Volynskiy Galinsky Gamarnik Giler Gitelmaher Goyzenshteyn Grabarnik Greenstein Katsan Kivenko Knizhnik Kovelman Kolodyazhni Korotik Kremen Linov Luzhanska Margulis Marcus Miropolsky Mitnick Nirenberchek Nudel Nudelnik Olin Orgel Pack Panich Patyk Peker Pinkovsky Polovinchek Polyak Rabinovich Reiter Rohlis Ryaboy Svinarsky Serebrenik Segal Slepoi Smirun Smolar Spitkovsky Stolovitsky Suslik Tonkonogiy Trilesky Ychitel Faer Feldman Friedel Furmansky Chait Khinchin Khodorkovsky Chubynsky Shapira Schwartzman Shevchuk Shisterman Yagnyatinskii Yaroslavskiy

File 20: Alper Belilovsky Bendikovich Berezovsky Bobar Brener Brodsky Vaser Vulis Gamarnik Gorenstein Greenstein Dobrin Zak Zaslavsky Zelenko Zilbergut Zilberman Ites Kaczynski Kemelmaher Kinberg Koltyn Kosoi Kravets Krivitsky Kushnir Lev Litvak Luzhanska Magdalinskiy Mazishok Meshengiser Mitnick Mnuman Monastirskiy Nahmanovsky Nachshon Nudel Oberfeld Ozyadovsky Olin Olgart Peker Perchenko Radovskiy Resnik Rosenberg Salganik Safyanovsky Segal Smolar Tarashchansky Tashlyk Toporovsky Trachtenberg Ylis Ychitel Furmansky Hazinsky Chariton Herhel Chernov Chubynsky Safran Sherman Shisterman Shkolnik Shpektor Steinberg Shulyaker

File 21: Blitshteyn Gorodina Litvak Tartakovskaya

File 22: Volkovich Natenzon Polyak Rabinovich Chubynsky Schiglik

File 23: Vilfand Gorbach Zolotussky Krivitsky Lyubarskii Nemirovsky Faibishenko Schwartzman Shtirnbarg

File 24: Abelev Berezman Bogopolskii Gilshteyn Gimelfarb Gitelman Dubinsky Zherdenovsky Zozovsky Kagan Keyzerman Kinzberg Koifman Kosoy Kreinis Limon Lipkelis Litvak Mogilevskiy Nosovski Pogrebysky Podolsky Postrelka Rabinovich Rasinski Roizen Sklyarsky Tabachnik Toporovsky Feldman Khinchin Tsatskin Tsirulnik Cherniavsky Shapira Shvartsburd Shevelenko Shlyakov Shorodinsky Spiegel Ezril Yagnyatinskii

File 25: Broverman Bystritskii Vaser Vishnevetskii Wisniewski Volodarsky Geiser Gorbatiy Gutman Dubovis Zilmenzon Zozovsky Kagan Kvyat Kemelmaher Korostyshevsky Krakovskiy Krasnoselskiy Kremener Krupnik Leviter Lieber Lieberman Lipelis Loshak Matz Miropolsky Narodetsky Novogorodsky Oksengendler Olin Orgel Order Parinsky Postrelka Roizen Rofman Rybczynski Sinitsa Fink Cherkassky Shapira Schwartzman Sherman

File 28: Balyasnaya Berdichevsky Bere Berlyand Bosis Burkatovsky Weinberg Vinarsky Vinnitskiy Gelman Gitelmaher Gluz Golfman Hoffmann Davydov Deitch Desyatnik Elskiy Zhornitskii Zaslavsky Zozovsky Itkes Kagan Kantor Kehr Kinzbarg Kipnes Klid Kovelman Kogan Kosy Kofman Leyzorzon Liberson Liflyandskiy Lukashevsky Lvovskiy Matz Menis Men’ Morgulis Motenko Nayshtat Neris Nerubay Ortenberg Ostrovsky Pickman Pogrebysky Podgur Polyak Portnoi Rabinovich Rapoport Revich Rosenfeld Rybczynski Sigalovsky Sokolovsky Spector Spivak Tversky Tripolski Feldblyum Feldman Khinchin Shafarenko Shvahman Shikhman Shlayn Shor Shuf Yagnyatinskii Yaroslavl

File 29: Baran Bard Brodskaya Bialik Weinstein Vennikov Volodarsky Galinsky Gelman Giler Goldnarbyt Golinskii Gorelko Gohtul Gudis Gutman Dubinsky Dyvinsky Entys Zelman Ilinskii Kagan Kantorovich Katz Kaczynski Kehr Kivenko Kinzberg Kislik Kovelman Koltyn Kononovsky Kotlyarskii Kofman Lev Levit Lewites Lipovetsky Litvak Lvovskiy Matsekh Mekibel Melskiy Mitnick Morgulis Musievsky Nemirovsky Neris Nirenberg Novogrebelsky Orgel Parinsky Patyk Pogrebysky Podgur Polyak Popelyansky Portnoi Rabinovich Rosovsky Rofman Rybczynski Spivak Teplitskii Torchinskiy Ulanovskii Ylis Frantsman Furman Khmelnitsky Chernis Chernov Shapira Sharfman Shvartsburd Schwartzman Shkolnik Shmunis Schneider Schneiderman Shor Spiegelman Shraiberg Shtulberg Ekshtut Yadilovich

File 30: Avratiner Batyr Berlyand Breytburd Budnitskii Bialik Weinberg Veksler Volodarsky Galman Gerner Gluzman Goldich Goldman Gofshtein Grinbarg Groisman Dolin Zhidovetsky Zhitomir Katz Kleiman Kliots Klotsman Kosov Kosoi Kosy Kofman Krivitsky Laynburd Lev Livshits Matsekh Men’ Milman Mostovaya Novofastovsky Ovetsky Pilecki Ploschansky Povarov Pogrebysky Podgur Porinsky portnoi Pasternak Potyk Prilutsky Rabinovich Revich Resnick Reizins Remennik Royzenfeld Rosovsky Rubalsky Rudyak Rymarenko Soliterman Sosnowski Sosnoviy Suslik Talskaya Tonkonogiy Toporovsky Feygis Hazinovich Khirman Khutornoi Tseytenberg Cherniavsky Shamis Shapira Schwartzman Shevts Shilenko Shmushkovitch Schneiderman Schiglik Adelman Yagnyatinskii File 31 Birfir Broynshteyn Weinstein Vaysburd Vaks Vahnyansky Vinokur Gershini Gluzman Goldman Davydov Zaslavsky Kliger Kubernik Lev Matsekh Pickman Rosenwasser Sendic Tversky Tevish Ulitsky Feigen Feldman Tsarovsky Shilenko Shor Shtulbarg

File 32: Bard Binder Borkatovsky Wasserman Ginsberg Grinbarg Groisman Dolin Kaplun Katz Coirah Koifman Komorowski Kosy Kravets Krivitsky Kushnir Markman Oberfeld Ostrobrod Ostrominsky Rabinovich Revich Rosenthal Rybczynski Slavinskiy Toporovsky Ylis Frumys Black Shvartsburd Shvahman Shraibman Yagnyatinskii

File 33: Burkatovsky

File 34: Barshcheuski Brodsky Burkatovsky Vilfand Zavalyansky Zaslavsky Torchinskiy Feinstein

File 36: Gorodetsky Kisilenko Reiter Cherniy Shapira Shkolnik

File 37: Barschevsky Broverman Dorozhansky Kleiman Krivitsky Linetskiy Morgulis Osochansky Pasternak Rabin Revich Senzon Shapira File 38: Bogopolskii Weinstein Zaslavsky Katz Krasniy Kutsen Litvak Mazur Novogradsky Orinshteyn Ostromogilny Pokrashevsky Pokrashevsky Rabinovich Starik Toporovsky Faerman Hanevsky Yarmolinsky

File 39: Azril Alper Atlas Babichenko Bezfamilny Beigel Vinetsky Volodarsky Wolfowitz Vygodner Gergelis Gerson Giter Goldfeld Hoffmann Greenberg Dubovis Zhuravitsky Zak Zalatussky Kagan Kivenko Kovelman Koltun Levenzon Liser Mazor Matusow Meerchenko Mezvinsky Mendelsohn Mogilev Natanzon Novogrebelsky Oberfeld Olin Order Orenstein Pavolotsky Patrikovsky Petyh Pechersky Pinsahovich Pliskovskaya Pogrebiysky Postolov Raigorodskii Rapoport Rafalovich Rahman Rosenfeld Ruyaninsky Sandler Segal Slavinskaya Slobodinsky Starik Strokovsky Tashlyk Tversky Tulchinsky Figa (Feiga) Fishbein Flantsbeyn Friedman Furman Khatskelevich Hashmintsev Khinchin Chernoglaz Chorniy Shapira Shafarenko Chafra Shvartsburd Shevchuk Sheikhetov Shlyakov Spiegelman Shpitsinetsky Shtivelmaher Yasinovka

File 40: Averbukh Algern Alman Artshteyn Arsh Bak Barskiy Beigel Belotitsky Borislavskiy Borodyansky Brier Breytburd Bril Bialik Vaysburd Vaks Vaser Vekslyarsky Volodarsky Vulis Gabovich Goldfarb Horowitz Gudes Gudzenko Gudzenko Dolina Dopter Dubinskaya Entin Zhitman Zaslavsky Zakharenko Zakharenko Zolotussky Ignatovskii Kagan Kaplun Kastlyatsky Kivenko Kiperman Kleiner Kolodishner Kuralnik Lev Limon Lishchinskaya Loytsker Meerchenko Miropolsky Mostovoi Obukhovskaya Olgert Pisnovetsky Pogrebisky Polyak Pasternak Indulging Pyatersky Rabinovich Rak Rapoport Rahlis Rahman Resnik Rubanov Rymenik Sapozhnik Simenko Spector Strokovsky Tetievsky Tifes Tonkonog Ylis Urman Fire Farshansky Feldman Finke Furman Khinchin Tsilenko Cherepinski Cherniy Shames Schwartzman Shechtman Shir Spiegel Yagnyatinskii Yampolsky Janowski

File 41: Domantovsky Krasniy Landa Chubynsky

 

Synagogue

Synagogue was rennovated due to help of Skvira Hasidim from USA in 2000’s.

Information about cemeteries was taken from Lo-Tishkah Cemetery project web site.

Old Jewish cemetery

Ohel on Skvira Old Jewish Cemetery

Ohel on Skvira Old Jewish Cemetery

The cemetery was founded at the time of the establishment of the community. It was demolished during World War II; after the war, local people used the gravestones for construction. As the brickyard adjacent to the site was expanded, the remaining gravestones were removed and taken to the area by the river bank.

The cemetery site is located next to the River Skvyra, on a hill. The ohel is located at the foot of the hill, next to a water pipeline belonging to the neighbouring brickyard which owns the cemetery land. The site is also adjacent to private dwellings.

Location: North-west area of the city, close to 32 Dzerzhinskogo street. There is an ohel at the site.

The cemetery site is undemarcated and (apart from the ohel) unmarked. It is not possible to ascertain its boundaries. It is not known whether the burial index for this cemetery is still in existence.

Tzadikim graves inside Ohel

Tzadikim graves inside Ohel

The cemetery site is located on the territory of the local brick factory. It is unmarked and undemarcated and there are no remaining gravestones at the site. Two gravestones can be found close to the site by the bank of the river and are at risk from vegetation and water damage and weather erosion.

Three burial places were restored in the ohel; there are no epitaphs on them. According to local residents, the central burial place is that of Rabbi Itshak Tversky of Skvyra (1812-1885), the founder of the Skver dynasty; the burial places of his sons (presumably Rabbi Avraam Yehoshua Geshel and Rabbi Israel) are situated on either side. In addition, two gravestones can be found on the river bank.

One among last gravestones on Jewish Cemetery

One among last gravestones on Jewish Cemetery

They were previously used by local people and were bought back by the Chairman of the Skvyra Jewish community Yefim Davidovich Shvartsburd.

Inscription on the oldest gravestone:

פ איש נ
חשוב מ נחמיה
בר אפרים נפ ז
אלול תרנה תנ
צבה האמערע[ז]

(Trans. Here lies an important man, Mister Nehemiya, the son of Efraim. Died on 7 Elul 5655. May his soul be tied in the knot of life. Gomere [z]).

New Jewish Cemetery

Cemetery was established in late 19th/early 20th century

The cemetery is adjacent to residential property, gardens and a football field. It is very close to Skvyra Old Jewish Cemetery and Skvyra Mass Grave (see IDs 10144 and 11813 respectively).

Enterance to New Jewish Cemetery

Enterance to New Jewish Cemetery

The cemetery is surrounded by a concrete wall, with a large iron gate at the entrance. The gate features a Star of David and two menorahs. The cemetery area is approximately 165m x 105m.
The cemetery is identifed, securely demarcated and generally well-maintained. However, there are some problems with weather erosion and excessive vegetation in the older section.
Date Of The Oldest Known Gravestone: 1880 – Khaya Feyga

The cemetery’s gravestones are well-maintained; none are broken or damaged. Inscriptions are in Russian, Hebrew and Yiddish. Gravestones are tablet-shaped and made from granite, sandstone and marble. A number have portraits.

New Jewish Cemetery

New Jewish Cemetery in Skvira

Cemetery history: It is thought that the oldest section of the cemetery belongs to the pre-war period (1920s – 1930s). The tombstones in this section were destroyed during the war and later looted by local people. This land, on which no gravestones remain, is still part of the cemetery. A new section (near the entrance) was opened in 1945. Two old tombstones dating from 1880 and 1913 have been preserved in the old section (perhaps brought from the old cemetery).

Holocaust Mass graves

I find photo of 2 Holocoust Mass graves in Internet and plane to get more information about this in future.

Mass killing site memorial in Skvira New Jewish Cemetery

Mass killing site memorial in Skvira New Jewish Cemetery

Mass killing site memorial in Skvira New Jewish Cemetery

Mass killing site memorial in Skvira New Jewish Cemetery

Skvira Holocoust Mass Grave

Skvira Holocoust Mass Grave

Comments

comments

7 Comments

  1. Дорогие друзья, моя фамилия Сквирская. Мои предки из тех краев. Наконец-то я узнала происхождение фамилии. Спасибо вам большое!

  2. Большое спасибо всем тем кто создал етот сайт.
    Моего пра-прадеда Пинхаса Ходорковского убили во время
    одного из погромов бандиты Тютюника. К сожалению он не смог выехать в Харбин а оттуда в Америку.
    Не судьба значит. Его внучка Буся Ходорковская (90 лет) и его внук Петр (85 лет)
    живут сейчас в Америке осуществив мечту деда.

    Несмотря на все муки, жертвы и погромы евреи родившиеся на Украине помнят не
    только зло причиненное им , но и многих хороших людей, которые им помогали.
    Спасибо что помяанули двоюродного маминого брата Давида Маргулиса, Героя Советского
    Союза , кавалера ордена Александра Невского командира артиллерийской бригады.
    После воины он получил 10 лет лагереи. Донес на него друг по Академии Фрунзе и посадили его за анекдот. Похоронен Давид в Ленинграде.
    К сожалению вы не упомянули факты благотворительности еврейских буржуев, так мои пра-прадед был упомянут в книге краеведа о Сквире как благотворитель и почетный гражданин города. Я думаю он был не один такой.

    • Шалом!

      А о какой книге речь?
      Как называеться? У Вас есть возможность ее выслать на vibu@jewua.org

    • Ян, здравствуйте!
      Моего дедушку звали Шая Ходорковский, его отца Шам или Шаммай. Вы случайно не знаете были ли у Вашего пра-деда братья? Я разыскиваю Ходорковских по Сквирской губернии? Спасибо, Александра.

  3. I would like to know more about Khaya Feyga, the person whose name is on the oldest known tombstone in the New Jewish Cemetery. My maternal grandmother was Anna Fega Rabinowitz, who was born in Skvira in 1891.
    steven H. Hirsch
    Stevenh_hirsch@yahoo.com

  4. I am looking to find my Grandfather David Solomonovich Gudzenko born in skvira in1884 or later

  5. I am searching for records on my Dekhtyar (dekhtyar) family…a ram Abraham, his son (my father) was Vasily. he had a daughter named Katerina, but Vasily ended up in German Pow camps during Ww 2. A ram was sent to Siberia. I am unable to find any documents that registered my dad Vasily’s birth in the Ukraine. Olga dekhtyar

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