Skver, Skvir, Skwere (Yiddish Transliteration), Skwira (Polish), Сквира – Skvira (Russian), Сквира – Skvyra (Ukrainian), סקווירא (Yiddish)
Skvyra is a town in the Kiev Oblast (province) of central Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Skvyrskyi Raion (district), and is currently a regional municipality.
First Jewish inhabitants
Jewish population of Skvyra:
1775 – 116 Jews
1847 – 2,184 Jews
1897 – 8,910 (49.5%)
1926 – 4,681 (33.6%)
1939 – 2,243 Jews
1950 ~ 1,000 Jews
1960 ~ 500 Jews
2009 ~ 120 Jews
The ancient town of Skvyra was completely destroyed at the end of the 16th century. In 1736, Skvyra was mentioned as a village (selo) leased to a Jewish tenant. According to the census of 1765, there were 124 houses in Skvyra, 51 of which belonged to Jews. In 1775, 116 Jews lived in Skvyra, in 1784 this figure rose to 204, and in 1787, to 144.
In the early nineteenth century the court of the Chernobyl Hasidic dynasty was in Skvyra. It was founded by Rabbi Yitzchak of Skvyra (1812-1885), one of the younger sons of Rabbi Motel Tversky (1770-1838). After his father’s death in 1838, he spent several years at the court of his elder brother in Chernobyl, and in early 1840 moved to Skvyra, where he founded a separate court. The Skvirsky court gathered thousands Hasidim for high holidays but Rabbi Yitzhak almost never left the town.
After the death of Rabbi Yitzhak his court was headed by his son Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel of Skvyra (1826-1886), then Abraham’s sun – Rabbi Moshe Dan of Skvyra (? – Kiev, 1920). The next Skvir Rabbi became his son Rabbi Yitzchak of Skvira (Skvira, 1886 – Tel Aviv, 1986). Other sons of Abraham Joshua Heschel held the Skvirskaja Hasidic courts in Ilintsy and Mahnovka.
Skvira map, 1914-1922
Rabbi Isaac, the second son of Rabbi Ytzchak, had several sons, one of whom Rabbi Menachem Nachum of Shpikova (? – 1887) lived in Shpikove and Raschkow, the third son Rabbi David (? – 1920, Kiev) and his children lived in Kiev.
After Skvyra was included in the Pale of Settlement, the town’s Jewish community increased. Its Jewish population was 2,184 in 1847 and grew to 8,910 in 1897 — 49.5% of the general population. At the end of the 19th century Skvyra had seven synagogues, a parochial school, a hospital, a pharmacist and a district doctor. Many Jews were engaged in grain and timber export. In the end of 19 century there were 7 Jewish prayer houses.
In 1912 S. An-skiy visited Skvyra during his ethnographic expedition. According to his records, the Hasidic court of Skvyra had declined and lost his prior glory by the time of his visit.
By 1910 the town had a Talmud Torah, a Jewish private boys’ school and two private girls’ schools. In 1913 Yampolskiy Usher Genzelevich was the town’s rabbi.
Skvyra businessmen in 1913:
Civil War pogroms
There were two pogroms in the town in 1917 and a wave of six pogroms in 1919, some of which lasted for several weeks. Rapes were committed, houses were burnt down, and Jewish property was seized and destroyed or sold to local peasants, with 191 people killed and hundreds injured.
1st pogrom: On 23 October 1917 local peasants pillaged Jewish shops (no casualties).
2nd pogrom: In February 1919 it was organised by the troops of Simon Petlura, fighting for Ukrainian independence (15 victims).
3d pogrom: Organised by the Red Army and casualty-free but many Jews left destitute
4th pogrom: Organised by the Ukrainian People’s Army troops, led by Yu. Tyutyunnyk and Zheleznyak and went on for 10 days. 56 Jews were murdered, among them the members of self-defence unit.
5th and 6th pogroms: In September 1919 organised by the Petlura troops, 55 Jews murdered.
7th pogrom: Went on during October and November 1919, organised by local thugs, killing 5 Jews.
8th pogrom: Was organised by the troops of the White (Anti-Bolshevik) Army, led by Denikin, 60 Jews were killed and 300 injured, many women raped. All Jewish shops were looted by local peasants.
Following the pogroms, an epidemic broke out, killing up to 30 people daily, most Jews decided to flee to Kiev, Odessa and Belaya Tserkov.
Yeshiva building in Skvyra. Photo by S.An-sky on 1912. In the past this building housed the Hasidm court of Skvyra.
After Civil War
I find this report on JDC Archiv website, it gave wide description of Skvira Jewish community state in beginning of 1920’s:
AMERICAN JOINT DISTRIBUTION COMMITTEE RUSSIAN UNIT.
REPORT ON SKVIRA, BELOTZSRKOV UYESD, KIEV GUBRNIA
The $100 received from the Skvira landsmanschaft, as per LHD R-52, was distributed in the following order:
– 120 poods of Matzo flour was purchased by the representative of the J. D. G. in consultation with, several representative citizens and distributed same among 79 needy families.
– The balance of 1.500 million roubles (about $30) was given to the children homes for repair and purchase of inventory for their workrooms.
Mass grave of pogrom victims on Skvira Jewish cemetery. Photo beginning of 1920’s
List of beneficiaries and signatures of recipients for flour distributed are attached hereto.
Skvira was formerly an Uyesd center, but the center has now been removed to Belaya Tzerkov.
The number of the population before, the pogroms was 25,000 now 20,000.
Jews before the pogroms 15,000 but now – 10,000. Number of shops before pogroms – 350.
Fifty houses were sold to peasants by Jews who escaped from town at the time of pogroms.
Before the pogroms Skvira was quite a commercial and industrial center. It had 8 mills, 8 oil churns and 6 sugar factories in and near the town.
Skvira has suffered of 8 pogroms, the worst of which took place in autumn of 1919 by the Tutunik bands. The total of Jews killed in the pogroms is 608, wounded 392 and violated about 350. The entire population was robbed, pillaged and economically ruined.
Mass grave of pogrom victims on Skvira Jewish cemetery. Photo beginning of 1920’s
AT PRESENT THERE ARE:
Jewish Widows 250
Individuals who lost their working ability 130
Among the population there are also 80 refugee families from the following neighboring towns: Borchagovka (10 families), Kornin (5 families), Tetiev (10 families), Volodarka (10 families), Novo-Fastov and other places (45 families).
The population is chiefly engaged in small trade and small industry, yet the greater part of the artisans are unemployed and have to earn their scanty living in small trade. Owing to the removal of the Uyesd from Skvira, the number of unemployed, intellectual workers has increased considerably.
INSTITUTIONS IN SKVIRA :
1. Skvira has two Orphan’s Homes for 72 children (59 full orphans and 13 half orphans)
2. Public School for 140 children
3. House for aged with 19 inmates
4. Bath-House totally destroyed
7. Clinical institute which is for use for members of trade unions only.
Tailoring workshop in Skvira. Photo by 1920’s
The Children Homes are supported by the Narobraz (Commissariat for Education) and subsidized, through the Evobkom, by the J. D. C. with food, clothing, shoes, fuel and cash for house repairs and additional equipment.
The apartment of Children’s Home No. 2 is in very bad state and should be removed to other quarters but cannot be accomplished through lack of funds. The house where children home is located needs only small repairs. The Children Homes are poorly supplied with household inventory, underwear, clothing and shoes.
The public school apartments are also very much in need of repairs. The course of studies in the school are frequently being interrupted through lack of school appliances.
The Home for Aged is need of capital repairs. The commodities supplied by the “Sobez” (Commissariat for Social Relief) is very insufficient. The inmates were half starved. The food supplied by the J. D. C. relieved the situation temporarily.
The Bath-House is now being repaired by the Comkhoz (Municipality). In order to enable the needy Jews of the town to use it free of charge, a subsidy must be given to the Municipality.
The Hospital and Dispensary are supplied with very little means and medicine and do not issue any medicines free of charge. The needy population is, therefore, deprived of any medical assistance.
In 1921 an agricultural cooperation has been organized in Skvira consisting of 17 refugee families from the neighboring pogormized places. The cooperation received 10 dessiatin of land from the Zemotdel (Commissariat for Agriculture).
In spite of the very difficult working conditions, without agricultural implements and other supplies, the cooperation accomplishes its harvest quite successful. But, not having any means of transportation, 500-600 poods of grain have been stolen from them.
In March 1923 the J. D. C. has issued to the cooperation through 0RT: 1 harrow, 30 poods of oats, 50 poods of potatoes and vegetable seeds for 1/2 dessiatin of land.
The J. D. C. distributed to the neediest of the population in Skvira out of its own fund: 55 food remittance packages and 660 pieces of underwear.
Child Asylum №2 for pogrom orphans in Skvira. Photo by 1921 from book book “Yevreiskaya Atlantida” (“The Jewish Atlantis”) by Elena Tsvelik
Under the Soviet Union the religious and communal life of the Jews of Skvyra was dissolved.
The town’s Jewish population fell to 4,681 by 1926 (about 33.6% of the population) and 2,243 by 1939, but even so it remained among the biggest Jewish communities of Ukraine at that time.
In World War II German forces occupied the town at July 13, 1941. In July 15, 1941 Jews were ordered to ware David star and used to forced labor. In 2 weeks after occupation were killed 10 communists, among them were Jews. Judenrat was created for contribution gathering and exact Jews count. After complete of this task all members of Judenrat were killed.
Jews before killing. Skvira, September 21st 1941 – German photo
During August-September 1941 the Einsatzgruppen 5 headquarters was in Skvyra ( head is Standartenfuhrer SS Schultz). At the morning September 20, 1941 ( from another sources September 21, 1941) Jews were gathered near school on Bogachevskogo Street and shot in 3 pits on Jewish Cemetery. At that day were killed approximately 850 Jews. Building was constructed on mass grave. Second “action” took place at October 17, 1941 – 170 Jews were killed near stable of Raipotrebsouz. Last mass killings took place at November 19, 1941 and December 20, 1941.
Ukrainian women Agata Melnichyk from village Berezyanka saved jewish girl Luba Volodarskaya (now living in Israel) who escaped from Skvira under unknown circumstances.
Skvira was liberated by Soviet Army at December 29, 1943. During Holocaust there were killed 1230 Jews.
According to the head of Skvyra’s Jewish community, there were mass shootings of Jews in the area of the market, the secondary school and in Bannaya Street.
In archiv of Illya Levitas (1931-2014) I found a story of Michail Bykov (1920-2000) and his family. They were gathered in the yard of school №2 together will all local Jews but escaped with help of friend from Ukrainian police. Michail became a member of partisan detachment and survived in Holocaust as his mother and sister.
Michail Bykov (in the middle) together with former partisans after the war.
Skyvra’s remaining Jewish population was about 1,000 after the War and fell to about 500 by 1960. It has continued to decline, and in 2009 numbered 128.
Rabbi Itzhak of Skver, Menahem Nohum Tversky’s grandson (1812, Chernobyl – 1895, Skvyra), the founder of the Hasidic dynasty in Skvyra.
The Hasidic court of the Chernobyl dynasty was established in Skvyra at the beginning of the 1840s by Rabbi Itshak of Skver (1812-1885), one of the younger sons of Rabbi Motele Twersky (1770-1838). After Rabbi Itshak’s death, the court was headed by his son, Rabbi Avraam Yegoshua Geshel of Skver (1826-1886), and then by Rabbi Avraam’s son, Rabbi Moshe Dan of Skver (? – Kiev, 1920) and by his son, Rabbi Itshak of Skver (Skvyra, 1886 – Tel-Aviv, 1986). In the 1920s, after the pogroms, many Skver Hasids left Skvyra. The Skver Hasidic dynasty has continued to exist and grow in number in the United States, notably in the New Square (anglicisation of New Skvir) township in Rockland County, New York. After 1991, many Skver Hasids returned to Skvyra; in 2004 the synagogue and the tzaddik’s court were restored; there is now a hotel for Hasidic visitors in the tzaddik’s former residents.
Margulis David Lvovich
Ahad ha-Am, writer and publicist (pen-name meaning “one of the people”; real name Asher Hirsh Gintsberg) (1856, Skvyra – 1927, Tel Aviv).
Yosef Shapiro, Yiddish writer, the author of “Skvirer hurbn” (“Skvyra catastrophe”, 1924), “Vergangenheit” (“The Past”, short stories about the Jewish pogroms in Ukraine, 1925), “Moschichische Personlichkeiten” (“Messianic Personalities”, 1931) (1902, Skvyra – 1978, Tel Aviv).
David Lvovich Margulis, Hero of the Soviet Union (Skvyra, 1914 – 1993, St. Petersburg).
Geneologist Boris Finkelshtein (email@example.com) researched many Archiv documents related to Skvira Jewish population in XIX-XX century. He provided next surnames and documents names:
- Skvira revision tale by 1850 (Archiv of Kiev oblast, file 280/2/1012) -257 surnames
Third guild merchants: Baraban Belogorodskaya Weisberg Wooleys Gronshteyn Zaslavsky Zozovsky Kaplun Kardash Kotlyarskii Krasniy Kryvitsky Labunskiy Logvinsky Lodak Natenzon Olin Pereltsvayg Polyak Roytbarg Segal Sirota Strokov Trachtenberg Faibishenko Chariton Khinchin Cherniavsky Shapira Eidelman Yampolsky
Bourgeois: Avrutsky Akselrud Alberkant Balaban Bezfamilny Belilovsky Belokopyt Benditovich Berezovsky Berlyand Berner Bespechansky Blelfer Bloch Bobel Bogoslavskih Borshchahivskiy Bosin Bril Brodsky Brudnik Bryl Brysylovsky Bubar Bugai Burdinsky Burstein Bykov Bialik Weinstein Weisberg Vaysburd Vaks Vaser Wachmann Vilsky Vinokur Wolinsky Galant Galiotka Gamarnik Gimelshteyn Gitelmaher Glatshteyn Glaze Goyhtul Golden Goldman Gokhshtein Grinbarg Greenberg Groisman Gruz Gruzman Gudzenko Hutz Gupner Gurovich Gusak Gufan Dikhtyar Domen Domentovsky Donskoy Dubenskiy Ermulnik Erusalimsky Zhivotovsky Zhitman Zhuravitsky Zhuravlinsky Zarudinetsky Zeltsah Zilevits Zolotussky Kagan Kamenyatsky Kapler Katz Kaczynski Kvyat Keyzerman Kigel Kizhberg Kirgel Kitaevskiy Kleyzerman Kleiman Kozlowski Kolman Kolomeets Kolominsky Koltun Koretsky Kosy Kotlyar Krantz Krasniy Kreynin Krivitsky Kubernik Kupershtein Kuryanetsky Kushnir Labunskiy Laynburd Lev Lewenstein Lieberman Lipinets Litvak Luzhanska Lukatskii Lukashevsky Lustenberg Lutskiy Lvovskiy Lublinskiy Lyubomsky Magdalinskiy Mazur Makarovskiy Medvedovsky Merbarg Mizis Mirgorodsky Mlonchin Mysenznik Nemerovsky Novogradsky Novofastovsky Olin Order Orlik Pack Petrikovskiy Pinka Pogorily Pogrebysky Polyak Pasternak Prokobovsky Prus Pteyh Ptuh Pyatigorskiy Rabinovich Rayzburd Rahman Revich Rovinskii Royzenblyum Royzental Royzentul Romanovsky Rohlis Rudak Rudnik Ruzhynskiy Rumennik Ruyaninsky Salganik Sapozhnik Segal Siry Smuglyansky Snitsarenko Sobel Sobol Stulsky Suslik Taborovsky Taran Tarashchansky Tonkonogiy Toporovsky Torchinskiy Ulis Fager Faynburd Fastovsky Feldman Figa Finkovsky Frenkel Friedel Fur Hantsin Hasmenut Hasminuy Heylovsky Khinchin Khirman Hirhel Khmelnitsky Khodorkovsky Hurman Chervinskiy Chernobylskiy Chertok Chorny Chudnovsky Shapira Saffran Schwartz Shvartsbarg Shvartsburd Schwartzman Shvidky Shiber Shnaper Shpektor Spiegel Shraibman Shtekelbarg Shterin Shtof Shtulsky Shtut Shumsky Eidelman Ekshtut Elenkrant Yufed Yampolsky Janiszewski
- Skvira revision tale by 1858 (Archiv of Kiev oblast, files 280/2/1490,1491) – 230 surnames
Abramovich Akslirud Alberpont Amboym Balaban Bareschevsky Begelfer Bezfamilny Benditovich Berezovsky Berlend Berner Bespechansky Bililovsky Bloch Boben Boguslavskiy Borshchahovskiy Bosin Brodsky Brudnik Brusilovsky Bryl Bubar Buzhai Burdyansky Burstein Bykov Bialik Vayzberg Weinstein Vaks Vaser Vatnik Vachmann Veksler Vilsky Vinokyr Woks Wolinsky Wolff Galant Gamarnik Gimelshteyn Gitelmaher Gladshtein Glas Goyhtut Goldenvaser Goldman Goldrah Golodka Goldenberg Golfand Goreskiy Gokhshtein Grinbarg Groisman Gruzman Gudzenko Gysak Dekhtyar Dolin Domskiy Dubenskiy Duvidovich Erusalimsky Zhivotovsky Zhitman Zhuravitsky Zak Zeltseh Zilovets Zolotusky Kagan Kamyanetsky Kapler Kaplun Katz Kvyat Keyzerman Kinzbarg Kitaevskaya Kichinsky Kleiman Kleinman Kobernik Kozlowski Kolomiets Koltun Colman Kosiy Kotlyar Krant Krantz Krasnoselskiy Krasniy Kreynin Krivitsky Kuryanets Kuryanitsky Kushnir Labunskiy Lev Lowenstein Lieberman Lipinets Litvak Loytburd Lomish Luzhanskiy Lukatskii Lukashevsky Lustenberg Lutskiy Lublinskiy Lyubomsky Magdalinskiy Mazur Makarovskiy Medvedovsky Mesberg Meshbarg Mizis Mirgorodsky Mlonchin Mosezhnik Nemerovsky Novogradsky Nofohvastovsky Ovrutsky Olen Order Orlik Pack Petrinovsky Pinka Pinkovsky Ploschinsky Pogorelyi Pogrebysky Polyak Pasternak Prus Ptah Ptukh Pyatigorsk Rabinovich Rayzburd Revich Royzembman Royzenblyum Royzentol Royzentul Romanovsky Romantovsky Rohlis Rohman Rudak Rudnik Ruzhynskiy Rumennik Siderman Siry Smol Smulchisky Sobol Solganik Spector Spitsarenko Stulsky Sumskiy Suslik Taborovsky Taran Tarashchansky Tonkonogiy Toporovsky Torchinskiy Ulis Faer Faibishenko Faynburd Fastovsky Feldman Figa Flick Freydel Frenkel Friedman Furmandsky Chariton Hasshinuy Herman Khinchin Khirman Hirshan Hitovsky Khmelnitsky Khodorkovsky Horiton Chervinskiy Chernobylskiy Cherniy Chisnik Chortok Chudnovsky Shapira Saffran Schwartz Shvartsburd Schwartzman Shvidky Sheyngayt Shenglayd Shiber Shnaper Shraibman Shteren Shtivelmaher Shtikselberg Shtof Shtut Eidelman Ekshpun Elinkrach Yufid Yampolsky Janiszewski Yarmulnik
- Skvira census by 1897 (Archiv of Kiev oblast, files 384/10/all) – more than 1100 surnames
File 2: Berlyand Bernstein Bubar Bystritskii Vaks Vaser Goldfain Gulkin Dah Dubinsky Kagan Kesner Kimbarg Koltyansky Komorowski Kotlyar Lev Lembergsky Leszczynski Mirshtat Moroz Nerubay Oberfeld Pliskovsky Polyak Rapoport Royzentul Rubalsky Starik Tartakovsky Fainburg Frenkel Henven Tsalenko Chervinskiy Cernik Chernyansky Shapira Spiegel Spiegelman
All names here
File 3: Bliznyuk Vaisburd Weinstein Weinstock Vakser Wisniewski Herman Gershenovsky Goldman Gohbarg Granovsky Kamenker Kisilevskii Klotsman Koretsky Kosov Krasniy Lev Neiman Ortenberg Ostrovsky Pavolotsky Pekelis Pogrebysky Polyak Pasternak Rabinovich Reizin Rudyak Sandlerman Sverdlik Solitra Sosnowski Trigub Feld Feldman Fishman Khinchin Tsisin Chernobylskiy Shtekelberg Shulimok Eidelman Yagnyatinskii
File 4: Barskiy Bilov Brener Bialik Volodarsky Vylis Gertsenshtein Gekhtman Goldich Goldfarb Hochman Granovsky Gulkin Diner Drogobytsky Dulitsky Zaharin Zolotusky Kamenetskii Katz Kovelman Koltun Krol Lerner Mazoray Matsekh Muchnik Novogradsky Ostrovsky Perelmutor Petlyuk Pikovskaya Rabinovich Rokah Friedel Fuchs Henven Khodorkovsky Chemirovsky Cherniy Chudnovsky Shapira Shklovsky Shmuskis Spiegelman Steinbarg Yampolsky File 5 Beylysh Bendetovich Bialik Vekslyarsky Vinokur Vishnepolsky Singer Kenis Korelman Kotlyarskii Leiner Luzhanska Milman Pogrebysky Pyatigorskiy Resnik Samgorodetsky Slobodyanskii Tonkonogiy Fainerman Hazinsky Shentsvid Schindler Spiegel
File 6: Gunzburg Gorodetsky Zenkovsky Krasniy Kuzynka Lieber Litvak Magit Nudel Pilipovsky Pogrebysky Rohtman Talalaivskiy Feldman Tsysin Chuhtman Spiegel Yampolsky
File 7: Altman Bellov Gimelfarb Goldenvasser Noskin Cherepinski Chubynsky File 8 Volotsky Heschel Goldveht Zozovsky Klubok Lev Lipskis Polyak Rabinovich Rosenblum Shapira
File 9: Byk Heschel Gorbatiy Grushko Dubovis Zheleznyak Zak Zozovsky Korostyshevsky Krakovskiy Krentsel Krieger Kutseno Lembergsky Lipelis Magid Maza Miropolsky Moldovan Pavolotsky Pikovsky Podolsky Polyak Portnoi Reybarg Raider Roydbak Roffman Sykulya Tsarovsky Shapira Safran Spiegel
File 10: Apter Avramsky Bokatovsky Bagel Weintraub Volodarsky Vulis Zhivotovsky Zhuravitskaya Zaslavsky Zolotussky Kivenko Kilimnik Kovelman Koltyn Koltin Loytske Lukashevsky Mezhbard Moldovan Nafak Nelek Pakentriger Peysya Rabinovich Raitsin Resnik Tonkonog Chariton Hinche Tsysin Cherkassky Shobal Yaroslav File 11 Barskiy Birbraev Weinman Vaysburd Zazovskii Menis Nudel Rosenthal Yuhtman File 12 Bronstein Vakhnenko Vilfand Katz Krasniy Olavyansky Revichkis Shteynebrg File 13 Dub Zhuravitsky File 15 Vayntrub Heller Kosoy File 17 Averbukh Alter Balyasniy Benditovich Vekslyarsky Vinnitskiy Vinokur Vihnenko Giverts Glatshteyn Gluzman Goldner Gorodetsky Dubinsky Dudnik Dybner Zhuravitsky Kanevskiy Keyzerman Kleiman Kogan Kolodyazhni Korotik Krantz Krasnov Lev Levovsky Libson Lisin Loytsker Lyubarskii Markvit Maslivsky Matz Mitnick Molyarsky Orgel Ostrovsky Paltievich Pecheniy Pogrebisky Polinovsky Polyak Rabinovich Rayzburg Suslik Starik Fraer Friedland Khinchin Tsisin Chubynsky Shvartsburd Shehet Shechtman Sholnik Shulyatsky File 18 Balaban Berlyand Bit Borodyansky Borshchahivskiy Brovarnik Bystritskii Weinstein Vinarsky Vishnivetsky Halperin Gladshtein Zhukovsky Zaydik Singer Kamenker Kinzberg Kilimnik Colman Kreinis Kurolannik Lyubomsky Matz Mitnick Muzharovsky Nemirovsky Novogrebelsky Oberfeld Olik Pack Pener Pikovskaya Rabinovich Rabets Rapoport Rosenblum Rosenfeld Rosohovetsky Rofman Serlest Segal Sinayuk Smulyansky Spector Spivak Srulevich Starominsky Stotland Strokovsky Trilesky Toporovsky Ylik Usherenko Feldman Fur Khinchin Khodorkovsky Chervinskiy Cherniy Shames Shapira Shvartsburd Steinberg Shtekelberg Ezril Yampolsky
File 19: Averbukh Aroub Berlyand Bogopolskii Borukhovich Bosin Budnitskii Bialik Weinberg Wisniewski Volynskiy Galinsky Gamarnik Giler Gitelmaher Goyzenshteyn Grabarnik Greenstein Katsan Kivenko Knizhnik Kovelman Kolodyazhni Korotik Kremen Linov Luzhanska Margulis Marcus Miropolsky Mitnick Nirenberchek Nudel Nudelnik Olin Orgel Pack Panich Patyk Peker Pinkovsky Polovinchek Polyak Rabinovich Reiter Rohlis Ryaboy Svinarsky Serebrenik Segal Slepoi Smirun Smolar Spitkovsky Stolovitsky Suslik Tonkonogiy Trilesky Ychitel Faer Feldman Friedel Furmansky Chait Khinchin Khodorkovsky Chubynsky Shapira Schwartzman Shevchuk Shisterman Yagnyatinskii Yaroslavskiy
File 20: Alper Belilovsky Bendikovich Berezovsky Bobar Brener Brodsky Vaser Vulis Gamarnik Gorenstein Greenstein Dobrin Zak Zaslavsky Zelenko Zilbergut Zilberman Ites Kaczynski Kemelmaher Kinberg Koltyn Kosoi Kravets Krivitsky Kushnir Lev Litvak Luzhanska Magdalinskiy Mazishok Meshengiser Mitnick Mnuman Monastirskiy Nahmanovsky Nachshon Nudel Oberfeld Ozyadovsky Olin Olgart Peker Perchenko Radovskiy Resnik Rosenberg Salganik Safyanovsky Segal Smolar Tarashchansky Tashlyk Toporovsky Trachtenberg Ylis Ychitel Furmansky Hazinsky Chariton Herhel Chernov Chubynsky Safran Sherman Shisterman Shkolnik Shpektor Steinberg Shulyaker
File 21: Blitshteyn Gorodina Litvak Tartakovskaya
File 22: Volkovich Natenzon Polyak Rabinovich Chubynsky Schiglik
File 23: Vilfand Gorbach Zolotussky Krivitsky Lyubarskii Nemirovsky Faibishenko Schwartzman Shtirnbarg
File 24: Abelev Berezman Bogopolskii Gilshteyn Gimelfarb Gitelman Dubinsky Zherdenovsky Zozovsky Kagan Keyzerman Kinzberg Koifman Kosoy Kreinis Limon Lipkelis Litvak Mogilevskiy Nosovski Pogrebysky Podolsky Postrelka Rabinovich Rasinski Roizen Sklyarsky Tabachnik Toporovsky Feldman Khinchin Tsatskin Tsirulnik Cherniavsky Shapira Shvartsburd Shevelenko Shlyakov Shorodinsky Spiegel Ezril Yagnyatinskii
File 25: Broverman Bystritskii Vaser Vishnevetskii Wisniewski Volodarsky Geiser Gorbatiy Gutman Dubovis Zilmenzon Zozovsky Kagan Kvyat Kemelmaher Korostyshevsky Krakovskiy Krasnoselskiy Kremener Krupnik Leviter Lieber Lieberman Lipelis Loshak Matz Miropolsky Narodetsky Novogorodsky Oksengendler Olin Orgel Order Parinsky Postrelka Roizen Rofman Rybczynski Sinitsa Fink Cherkassky Shapira Schwartzman Sherman
File 28: Balyasnaya Berdichevsky Bere Berlyand Bosis Burkatovsky Weinberg Vinarsky Vinnitskiy Gelman Gitelmaher Gluz Golfman Hoffmann Davydov Deitch Desyatnik Elskiy Zhornitskii Zaslavsky Zozovsky Itkes Kagan Kantor Kehr Kinzbarg Kipnes Klid Kovelman Kogan Kosy Kofman Leyzorzon Liberson Liflyandskiy Lukashevsky Lvovskiy Matz Menis Men’ Morgulis Motenko Nayshtat Neris Nerubay Ortenberg Ostrovsky Pickman Pogrebysky Podgur Polyak Portnoi Rabinovich Rapoport Revich Rosenfeld Rybczynski Sigalovsky Sokolovsky Spector Spivak Tversky Tripolski Feldblyum Feldman Khinchin Shafarenko Shvahman Shikhman Shlayn Shor Shuf Yagnyatinskii Yaroslavl
File 29: Baran Bard Brodskaya Bialik Weinstein Vennikov Volodarsky Galinsky Gelman Giler Goldnarbyt Golinskii Gorelko Gohtul Gudis Gutman Dubinsky Dyvinsky Entys Zelman Ilinskii Kagan Kantorovich Katz Kaczynski Kehr Kivenko Kinzberg Kislik Kovelman Koltyn Kononovsky Kotlyarskii Kofman Lev Levit Lewites Lipovetsky Litvak Lvovskiy Matsekh Mekibel Melskiy Mitnick Morgulis Musievsky Nemirovsky Neris Nirenberg Novogrebelsky Orgel Parinsky Patyk Pogrebysky Podgur Polyak Popelyansky Portnoi Rabinovich Rosovsky Rofman Rybczynski Spivak Teplitskii Torchinskiy Ulanovskii Ylis Frantsman Furman Khmelnitsky Chernis Chernov Shapira Sharfman Shvartsburd Schwartzman Shkolnik Shmunis Schneider Schneiderman Shor Spiegelman Shraiberg Shtulberg Ekshtut Yadilovich
File 30: Avratiner Batyr Berlyand Breytburd Budnitskii Bialik Weinberg Veksler Volodarsky Galman Gerner Gluzman Goldich Goldman Gofshtein Grinbarg Groisman Dolin Zhidovetsky Zhitomir Katz Kleiman Kliots Klotsman Kosov Kosoi Kosy Kofman Krivitsky Laynburd Lev Livshits Matsekh Men’ Milman Mostovaya Novofastovsky Ovetsky Pilecki Ploschansky Povarov Pogrebysky Podgur Porinsky portnoi Pasternak Potyk Prilutsky Rabinovich Revich Resnick Reizins Remennik Royzenfeld Rosovsky Rubalsky Rudyak Rymarenko Soliterman Sosnowski Sosnoviy Suslik Talskaya Tonkonogiy Toporovsky Feygis Hazinovich Khirman Khutornoi Tseytenberg Cherniavsky Shamis Shapira Schwartzman Shevts Shilenko Shmushkovitch Schneiderman Schiglik Adelman Yagnyatinskii File 31 Birfir Broynshteyn Weinstein Vaysburd Vaks Vahnyansky Vinokur Gershini Gluzman Goldman Davydov Zaslavsky Kliger Kubernik Lev Matsekh Pickman Rosenwasser Sendic Tversky Tevish Ulitsky Feigen Feldman Tsarovsky Shilenko Shor Shtulbarg
File 32: Bard Binder Borkatovsky Wasserman Ginsberg Grinbarg Groisman Dolin Kaplun Katz Coirah Koifman Komorowski Kosy Kravets Krivitsky Kushnir Markman Oberfeld Ostrobrod Ostrominsky Rabinovich Revich Rosenthal Rybczynski Slavinskiy Toporovsky Ylis Frumys Black Shvartsburd Shvahman Shraibman Yagnyatinskii
File 33: Burkatovsky
File 34: Barshcheuski Brodsky Burkatovsky Vilfand Zavalyansky Zaslavsky Torchinskiy Feinstein
File 36: Gorodetsky Kisilenko Reiter Cherniy Shapira Shkolnik
File 37: Barschevsky Broverman Dorozhansky Kleiman Krivitsky Linetskiy Morgulis Osochansky Pasternak Rabin Revich Senzon Shapira File 38: Bogopolskii Weinstein Zaslavsky Katz Krasniy Kutsen Litvak Mazur Novogradsky Orinshteyn Ostromogilny Pokrashevsky Pokrashevsky Rabinovich Starik Toporovsky Faerman Hanevsky Yarmolinsky
File 39: Azril Alper Atlas Babichenko Bezfamilny Beigel Vinetsky Volodarsky Wolfowitz Vygodner Gergelis Gerson Giter Goldfeld Hoffmann Greenberg Dubovis Zhuravitsky Zak Zalatussky Kagan Kivenko Kovelman Koltun Levenzon Liser Mazor Matusow Meerchenko Mezvinsky Mendelsohn Mogilev Natanzon Novogrebelsky Oberfeld Olin Order Orenstein Pavolotsky Patrikovsky Petyh Pechersky Pinsahovich Pliskovskaya Pogrebiysky Postolov Raigorodskii Rapoport Rafalovich Rahman Rosenfeld Ruyaninsky Sandler Segal Slavinskaya Slobodinsky Starik Strokovsky Tashlyk Tversky Tulchinsky Figa (Feiga) Fishbein Flantsbeyn Friedman Furman Khatskelevich Hashmintsev Khinchin Chernoglaz Chorniy Shapira Shafarenko Chafra Shvartsburd Shevchuk Sheikhetov Shlyakov Spiegelman Shpitsinetsky Shtivelmaher Yasinovka
File 40: Averbukh Algern Alman Artshteyn Arsh Bak Barskiy Beigel Belotitsky Borislavskiy Borodyansky Brier Breytburd Bril Bialik Vaysburd Vaks Vaser Vekslyarsky Volodarsky Vulis Gabovich Goldfarb Horowitz Gudes Gudzenko Gudzenko Dolina Dopter Dubinskaya Entin Zhitman Zaslavsky Zakharenko Zakharenko Zolotussky Ignatovskii Kagan Kaplun Kastlyatsky Kivenko Kiperman Kleiner Kolodishner Kuralnik Lev Limon Lishchinskaya Loytsker Meerchenko Miropolsky Mostovoi Obukhovskaya Olgert Pisnovetsky Pogrebisky Polyak Pasternak Indulging Pyatersky Rabinovich Rak Rapoport Rahlis Rahman Resnik Rubanov Rymenik Sapozhnik Simenko Spector Strokovsky Tetievsky Tifes Tonkonog Ylis Urman Fire Farshansky Feldman Finke Furman Khinchin Tsilenko Cherepinski Cherniy Shames Schwartzman Shechtman Shir Spiegel Yagnyatinskii Yampolsky Janowski
File 41: Domantovsky Krasniy Landa Chubynsky
Synagogue was rennovated due to help of Skvira Hasidim from USA in 2000’s.
Information about cemeteries was taken from Lo-Tishkah Cemetery project web site.
Old Jewish cemetery
Ohel on Skvira Old Jewish Cemetery
The cemetery was founded at the time of the establishment of the community. It was demolished during World War II; after the war, local people used the gravestones for construction. As the brickyard adjacent to the site was expanded, the remaining gravestones were removed and taken to the area by the river bank.
The cemetery site is located next to the River Skvyra, on a hill. The ohel is located at the foot of the hill, next to a water pipeline belonging to the neighbouring brickyard which owns the cemetery land. The site is also adjacent to private dwellings.
Location: North-west area of the city, close to 32 Dzerzhinskogo street. There is an ohel at the site.
The cemetery site is undemarcated and (apart from the ohel) unmarked. It is not possible to ascertain its boundaries. It is not known whether the burial index for this cemetery is still in existence.
Tzadikim graves inside Ohel
The cemetery site is located on the territory of the local brick factory. It is unmarked and undemarcated and there are no remaining gravestones at the site. Two gravestones can be found close to the site by the bank of the river and are at risk from vegetation and water damage and weather erosion.
Three burial places were restored in the ohel; there are no epitaphs on them. According to local residents, the central burial place is that of Rabbi Itshak Tversky of Skvyra (1812-1885), the founder of the Skver dynasty; the burial places of his sons (presumably Rabbi Avraam Yehoshua Geshel and Rabbi Israel) are situated on either side. In addition, two gravestones can be found on the river bank.
One among last gravestones on Jewish Cemetery
They were previously used by local people and were bought back by the Chairman of the Skvyra Jewish community Yefim Davidovich Shvartsburd.
Inscription on the oldest gravestone:
פ איש נ
חשוב מ נחמיה
בר אפרים נפ ז
אלול תרנה תנ
(Trans. Here lies an important man, Mister Nehemiya, the son of Efraim. Died on 7 Elul 5655. May his soul be tied in the knot of life. Gomere [z]).
New Jewish Cemetery
Cemetery was established in late 19th/early 20th century
The cemetery is adjacent to residential property, gardens and a football field. It is very close to Skvyra Old Jewish Cemetery and Skvyra Mass Grave (see IDs 10144 and 11813 respectively).
Enterance to New Jewish Cemetery
The cemetery is surrounded by a concrete wall, with a large iron gate at the entrance. The gate features a Star of David and two menorahs. The cemetery area is approximately 165m x 105m.
The cemetery is identifed, securely demarcated and generally well-maintained. However, there are some problems with weather erosion and excessive vegetation in the older section.
Date Of The Oldest Known Gravestone: 1880 – Khaya Feyga
The cemetery’s gravestones are well-maintained; none are broken or damaged. Inscriptions are in Russian, Hebrew and Yiddish. Gravestones are tablet-shaped and made from granite, sandstone and marble. A number have portraits.
New Jewish Cemetery in Skvira
Cemetery history: It is thought that the oldest section of the cemetery belongs to the pre-war period (1920s – 1930s). The tombstones in this section were destroyed during the war and later looted by local people. This land, on which no gravestones remain, is still part of the cemetery. A new section (near the entrance) was opened in 1945. Two old tombstones dating from 1880 and 1913 have been preserved in the old section (perhaps brought from the old cemetery).
Holocaust Mass graves
I find photo of 2 Holocoust Mass graves in Internet and plane to get more information about this in future.
Mass killing site memorial in Skvira New Jewish Cemetery
Mass killing site memorial in Skvira New Jewish Cemetery
Skvira Holocoust Mass Grave