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Skvira

Skvira
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Skver, Skvir, Skwere (Yiddish Transliteration), Сквира – Skvyra (Ukrainian), סקווירא (Yiddish)

Skvyra is a town in the Kiev Oblast (province) of central Ukraine.  It is the administrative center of the Skvyrskyi Raion (district), and is currently a regional municipality.

In the end of XIX – beginning XX century, Skvyra was a center of uezd in Kiev gubernia.

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Information about post-WWII Jews of Skvira was provided by the chairman of the community, Yefim Schwarzburd. He was born in 1948.

Yefim Schwarzburd on the front of the restored synagogue with tourist from Kiev

Yefim Schwarzburd on the front of the restored synagogue with tourist from Kiev

Some book with a description of the pre-revolutionary town was published in Israel by a native of Skvira. However, I couldn’t find the author’s name, nor the title, nor the book itself.
Skvira Hasidim now living in the United States have some memories and materials about Skvira of the XIX – XX centuries, but it is difficult to find their contacts 🙁

Jewish population of Skvyra:
1775 – 116 Jews
1847 – 2,184 Jews
1897 – 8,910 (49.5%)
1926 – 4,681 (33.6%)
1939 – 2,243 Jews
1950 ~ 1,000 Jews
1960 ~ 500 Jews
2009 ~ 120 Jews

The ancient town of Skvyra was completely destroyed at the end of the XVI century. In 1736, Skvyra was mentioned as a village (selo) leased to a Jewish tenant. According to the census of 1765, there were 124 houses in Skvyra, 51 of which belonged to Jews. In 1775, 116 Jews lived in Skvyra, in 1784 this figure rose to 204, and in 1787, to 144.

In the early nineteenth century, the court of the Chernobyl Hasidic dynasty was in Skvyra. It was founded by Rabbi Yitzchak of Skvyra (1812-1885), one of the younger sons of Rabbi Motel Tversky (1770-1838). After his father’s death in 1838, he spent several years at the court of his elder brother in Chernobyl, and in early 1840 moved to Skvyra, where he founded a separate court. The Skvirsky court gathered thousands Hasidim for high holidays but Rabbi Yitzhak almost never left the town.

After the death of Rabbi Yitzhak his court was headed by his son Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel of Skvyra (1826-1886), then Abraham’s sun – Rabbi Moshe Dan of Skvyra (? – Kiev, 1920). The next Skvir Rabbi became his son Rabbi Yitzchak of Skvira (Skvira, 1886 – Tel Aviv, 1986). Other sons of Abraham Joshua Heschel held the Skvirskaja Hasidic courts in Ilintsy and Mahnovka.

Skvira map, 1826

Skvira map, 1826

Rabbi Isaac, the second son of Rabbi Ytzchak, had several sons, one of whom Rabbi Menachem Nachum of Shpikova (? – 1887) lived in Shpikove and Raschkow, the third son Rabbi David (? – 1920, Kiev) and his children lived in Kiev.  In the 1920s, after the pogroms, many Skver Hasids left Skvyra. The Skver Hasidic dynasty has continued to exist and grow in number in the United States, notably in the New Square (anglicisation of New Skvir) township in Rockland County, New York.

After Skvyra was included in the Pale of Settlement, the town’s Jewish community increased. Its Jewish population was 2,184 in 1847 and grew to 8,910 in 1897 — 49.5% of the general population. At the end of the 19th century Skvyra had seven synagogues, a parochial school, a hospital, a pharmacist and a district doctor. Many Jews were engaged in grain and timber export. In the end of 19 century there were 7 Jewish prayer houses.

Market in the Skvyra, 1910's

Market in the Skvyra, 1910’s

In 1912 S. An-skiy visited Skvyra during his ethnographic expedition. According to his records, the Hasidic court of Skvyra had declined and lost his prior glory by the time of his visit.

By 1910 the town had a Talmud Torah, a Jewish private boys’ school and two private girls’ schools. In 1913 Yampolskiy Usher Genzelevich was the town’s rabbi.

Skvyra entrepreneurs list from Russian Empire Business Directories by 1913

Skvyra entrepreneurs list from Russian Empire Business Directories by 1913

2 more lists

Civil War pogroms

There were two pogroms in the town in 1917 and a wave of six pogroms in 1919, some of which lasted for several weeks. Rapes were committed, houses were burnt down, and Jewish property was seized and destroyed or sold to local peasants, with 191 people killed and hundreds injured.

View on center of former shtetl from the Old Jewish cemetery

View on center of former shtetl from the Old Jewish cemetery

1st pogrom: On 23 October 1917 local peasants pillaged Jewish shops (no casualties).
2nd pogrom: In February 1919 it was organised by the troops of Simon Petlura, fighting for Ukrainian independence (15 victims).
3d pogrom: Organised by the Red Army and casualty-free but many Jews left destitute
4th pogrom: Organised by the Ukrainian People’s Army troops, led by Yu. Tyutyunnyk and Zheleznyak and went on for 10 days. 56 Jews were murdered, among them the members of self-defence unit.
5th and 6th pogroms: In September 1919 organised by the Petlura troops, 55 Jews murdered.
7th pogrom: Went on during October and November 1919, organised by local thugs, killing 5 Jews.
8th pogrom: Was organised by the troops of the White (Anti-Bolshevik) Army, led by Denikin, 60 Jews were killed and 300 injured, many women raped. All Jewish shops were looted by local peasants.

Following the pogroms, an epidemic broke out, killing up to 30 people daily, most Jews decided to flee to Kiev, Odessa and Belaya Tserkov.

Yeshiva building in Skvyra. Photo by S.An-sky on 1912. In the past this building housed the Hasidm court of Skvyra.

Yeshiva building in Skvyra. Photo by S.An-sky on 1912. In the past this building housed the Hasidm court of Skvyra.

After Civil War

I find this report on JDC Archiv website, it gave wide description of Skvira Jewish community state in beginning of 1920’s:

AMERICAN JOINT DISTRIBUTION COMMITTEE RUSSIAN UNIT. REPORT ON SKVIRA, BELOTZSRKOV UYESD, KIEV GUBRNIA

The $100 received from the Skvira landsmanschaft, as per LHD R-52, was distributed in the following order: – 120 poods of Matzo flour was purchased by the representative of the J. D. G. in consultation with, several representative citizens and distributed same among 79 needy families. – The balance of 1.500 million roubles (about $30) was given to the children homes for repair and purchase of inventory for their workrooms.

Mass grave of pogrom victims in Skvira Jewish cemetery. Photo beginning of 1920's

Mass grave of pogrom victims on Skvira Jewish cemetery. Photo beginning of 1920’s

Skvira was formerly an Uyesd center, but the center has now been removed to Belaya Tzerkov. The number of the population before, the pogroms was 25,000 now 20,000. Jews before the pogroms 15,000 but now – 10,000. Number of shops before pogroms – 350. Fifty houses were sold to peasants by Jews who escaped from town at the time of pogroms.

Before the pogroms Skvira was quite a commercial and industrial center. It had 8 mills, 8 oil churns and 6 sugar factories in and near the town.

Skvira has suffered of 8 pogroms, the worst of which took place in autumn of 1919 by the Tutunik bands. The total of Jews killed in the pogroms is 608, wounded 392 and violated about 350. The entire population was robbed, pillaged and economically ruined.

Mass grave of pogrom victims on Skvira Jewish cemetery. Photo beginning of 1920's

Mass grave of pogrom victims on Skvira Jewish cemetery. Photo beginning of 1920’s

AT PRESENT THERE ARE:

Jewish Widows 250 Orphans 256 Half-Orphans 350 Individuals who lost their working ability 130

Among the population there are also 80 refugee families from the following neighboring towns: Borchagovka (10 families), Kornin (5 families), Tetiev (10 families), Volodarka (10 families), Novo-Fastov and other places (45 families).

The population is chiefly engaged in small trade and small industry, yet the greater part of the artisans are unemployed and have to earn their scanty living in small trade. Owing to the removal of the Uyesd from Skvira, the number of unemployed, intellectual workers has increased considerably.

INSTITUTIONS IN SKVIRA : 1. Skvira has two Orphan’s Homes for 72 children (59 full orphans and 13 half orphans) 2. Public School for 140 children 3. House for aged with 19 inmates 4. Bath-House totally destroyed 5. Hospital 6. Dispensary 7. Clinical institute which is for use for members of trade unions only.

Tailoring workshop in Skvira. Photo by 1920's

Tailoring workshop in Skvira. Photo by 1920’s

The Children Homes are supported by the Narobraz (Commissariat for Education) and subsidized, through the Evobkom, by the J. D. C. with food, clothing, shoes, fuel and cash for house repairs and additional equipment. The apartment of Children’s Home No. 2 is in very bad state and should be removed to other quarters but cannot be accomplished through lack of funds. The house where children home is located needs only small repairs. The Children Homes are poorly supplied with household inventory, underwear, clothing and shoes.

Child Asylum №2 for pogrom orphans in Skvira. Photo by 1921 from book book “Yevreiskaya Atlantida” (“The Jewish Atlantis”) by Elena Tsvelik

Child Asylum №2 for pogrom orphans in Skvira. Photo by 1921 from book book “Yevreiskaya Atlantida” (“The Jewish Atlantis”) by Elena Tsvelik

Between WWI and WWII

Under the Soviet Union the religious and communal life of the Jews of Skvyra was dissolved.

The town’s Jewish population fell to 4,681 by 1926 (about 33.6% of the population) and 2,243 by 1939, but even so it remained among the biggest Jewish communities of Ukraine at that time.

In 1941, local authorities evacuated the contents from a local archive but the cars transporting these documents were bombed by airplanes. Thus, the most valuable records on the history of Jews from Skvira was destroyed.

Holocaust

A lot of Jews did not evacuate because they remembered the Germans during the Civil War and the order which they had brought.

In World War II German forces occupied the town at July 13, 1941. In July 15, 1941 Jews were ordered to ware David star and used to forced labor. In 2 weeks after occupation were killed 10 communists, among them were Jews. Judenrat was created for contribution gathering and exact Jews count. After complete of this task all members of Judenrat were killed.

Jews before killing. Skvira, September 21st 1941 - German photo

Jews before killing. Skvira, September 21st 1941 – German photo

During August-September 1941 the Einsatzgruppen 5 headquarters was in Skvyra ( head is Standartenfuhrer SS Schultz).  At the morning September 20, 1941 ( from another sources September 21, 1941) Jews were gathered near school on Bogachevskogo Street and shot in 3 pits in different parts of Skvira. At that day were killed approximately 850 Jews. Second “action” took place at October 17, 1941 – 170 Jews were killed near stable of Raipotrebsouz. Last mass killings took place at November 19, 1941 and December 20, 1941.

From another sources, the majority of local Jews were killed during the three day period from September 28,29,30, 1941. Both Germans and Ukrainians took part in shootings. Because of the lack of Germans local Ukrainians did more “dirty work”.

The majority of local Jews were killed during the three day period from September 28,29,30, 1941.

Ukrainian women Agata Melnichyk from village Berezyanka saved jewish girl Luba Volodarskaya (now living in Israel) who escaped from Skvira under unknown circumstances.

Skvira was liberated by Soviet Army at December 29, 1943. During Holocaust there were killed 1230 Jews.

According to the head of Skvyra’s Jewish community, there were mass shootings of Jews in the area of the market, the secondary school and in Bannaya Street.

In archiv of Illya Levitas (1931-2014) I found a story of  Michail Bykov (1920-2000) and his family. They were gathered in the yard of school №2 together will all local Jews but escaped with help of friend from Ukrainian police. Michail became a member of partisan detachment and survived in Holocaust as his mother and sister.

Michail Bykov (in the middle) together with former partisans.

Michail Bykov (in the middle) together with former partisans after the war.

Grave of Michail Bykov and his wife in Skvira Jewish cemetery

Grave of Michail Bykov and his wife in Skvira Jewish cemetery

About 1,300 Jews were killed in Skvira…

The bodies of those who had been killed were reburied at the Jewish cemetery in 1947. This was organized by local Jews Tetiyevsky, Kofman, Pekar, and Magazinnik.

Jewish houses had been occupied by non-Jews during the war and only a few of them were returned to the owners after the war.

After the WWII

After the war a lot of Jewish families returned to Skvira from the evacuation and front. Among them there were the Kagans, Pekers, Tulchinskys, Kofmans, Krivitskys, Yudkovichs, Feldmans, Koyrakh, Lutskys, Slutskers, Goldenbergs, Vildmans, Kats, Shvartsburd, Vaysburd, Fuhrer, Reydman, Ginevskys, Slobotskys, and many others.
Only Jewish families were living in Nizhnegradskaya street after the war.
Petr Shapiyevsky and Mikhail Siderman were the unofficial heads of the Jewish community in the 1950’s-1960’s.
1,000 Jews lived in Skvira in 1953. The 1,000th Jew was a Jewish girl who was born that year. Several families baked matza. Gamarnik and Kofman families were among them. Although Jews weren’t pursued by Skvira authorities, matza was delivered to the homes when it was already dark.

Old Jewish shop in the center of Skvyra

Old Jewish shop in the center of Skvyra

An unofficial minyan used to gather in different houses. The authorities didn’t pursue the Jews for that. Mohel whose surname is unknown and shoykhet whose last name was Slutsker (his son lives in Israel now) were in the shtetl. The latter died in 1967. After that there was no shoykhet in Skvira.
After the war the level of mixed marriages was very small. Shadkhanit came from Belaya Tserkov, Zhitomir, and Berdichev. .
The amount of mixed marriages started to increase rapidly since the 1970’s.
In the 1950’s, 1960’s, 1970’s there were five-six Jewish weddings per year. And in the 1990’s there were only two such wedding for 10 years.
Mass Jewish emigration from Skvira began in 1978-1979. Boris Lidkovich was the first to move to Israel together with his family.
About 100 Jews left Skvira for the USA in 1978-1979. Several hundreds of Jews went to Israel in the 1980’s.
Officially the Jewish community was registered in already independent Ukraine in the early 1990’s. Shika Pekar was its chairman until 1994. Then Yefim Schwarzburd took his place.In 2001, restoration began on the building of Duvidl Tverskoy’s synagogue. The work finished in July 2004. A mikva and a canteen were built in there. More than 1,000 people came to the opening ceremony from different countries around the world.

The Rabbi’s house was situated next to the synagogue but it wasn’t preserved. It has been restored from photos and now there is a hotel which can welcome 100 people

After the repair only the ceiling, the walls, and the front doors in the synagogue and rabbi’s house have been preserved in their original mid XX century condition. The building has been repaired and is now functioning. The work was funded by Skvira Jews living in the USA.
By 2014 tourists had been visiting the synagogue but since the Russian aggression began the level of tourism has decreased.
In the 2000’s, a Sunday school was functioning in the community. Nine students studied there. Later they all moved to Israel.
In 2009, a rabbi from Belaya Tserkov sent Benyamin Semeniuk to organize prayers, Shabbats, and Torah learning. It continued for four years until Benyamin left for Lugansk.
With the beginning of the Russian aggression Beyamin (Yuriy) Semeniuk fought on the side of illegal armed groups against the Ukrainian troops. His further fate is unknown.
In 2018, 35 Jews lived in Skvira. Those were mostly elderly people.

Leyb Surkis was the first Hassid who visited Skvira after WWII. In 1988, he arrived for the first time and at once met Yefim Shwarzburd in the street. The latter addressed him in Yiddish. Since then, the Hasidim from the United States who used to live in Skvira help the local Jewish community actively.

Until 1917, there were eight synagogues and 12 prayer houses in Skvira. At the moment, only the synagogue of Duvidl Tversky and one wall of the Great Choral Synagogue, which was destroyed during the war, have been preserved. Now this building is part of a factory.

Wall of the Great Choral Synagogue. 2018

Wall of the Great Choral Synagogue, 2018

Before the war the entire center of Skvira was occupied by Jews. However, except for a few houses, those buildings have not been preserved.

Famous Jews from Skvira

Ahad ha-Am (1856, Skvyra – 1927, Tel Aviv), writer and publicist (pen-name meaning “one of the people”; real name Asher Hirsh Gintsberg).

Ahad ha-Am

Ahad ha-Am

Yosef Shapiro (1902, Skvyra – 1978, Tel Aviv), Yiddish writer, the author of “Skvirer hurbn” (“Skvyra catastrophe”, 1924), “Vergangenheit” (“The Past”, short stories about the Jewish pogroms in Ukraine, 1925), “Moschichische Personlichkeiten” (“Messianic Personalities”, 1931).

David Lvovich Margulis (Skvyra, 1914 – 1993, St. Petersburg), Hero of the Soviet Union .

Margulis David Lvovich

Margulis David Lvovich

Restored synagogue

Synagogues locates in the center of former shtetl

Synagogues locates in the center of former shtetl

There were three Jewish cemeteries in Skvira:

Jewish cemetery in Sangorodetskaya street.

The cemetery was destroyed and then different houses and buildings were built on its place after WWII.

Old Jewish cemetery

It was situated on the bank of the river Skvirka not far from the center of the shtetl and covered 17 hectares. It was destroyed in the 1930’s and a brick factory was built on its place. We can assume that since 1917 this cemetery hasn’t been used.

The location of the grave of the founder of Skvira dynasty was determinated in the end of 1980’s due to maps of Skvirer Hasidim from USA. Ohel was established in 1989-1990.
A mikva was built near the ohel. However, local inhabitants used it as a place where they could drink alcohol so Jews themselves dismantled it.
Yefim Schwarzburd found several matsevas on the river bank and brought them to the ohel. However, the Ukrainians broke them. Matsevas from the destroyed cemetery can still be found in the locals’ yard.

Itskhok Tverskoy (1812-1895) and his son and daughter who died of typhoid.

Itskhok Tverskoy (1812-1895) and his son and daughter who died of typhoid.

Itskhok Tverskoy (1812-1895) and his sons  who died of typhoid.
Their whereabouts were found with the help of the maps which had been kept by Hasidim in the USA. The maps showed trees which had been growing there for more than 80 years.
Thus, with this information the exact location of the graves was determined. Ohel was established in 1989-1990.
A mikva was built near the ohel. However, local inhabitants used it as a place where they could drink alcohol so Jews themselves dismantled it.
Yefim Schwarzburd found several matsevas on the river bank and brought them to the ohel. However, the Ukrainians broke them. Matsevas from the destroyed cemetery can still be found in the locals’ yard.

Photo of these gravestones were shot by Lo-Tishkah expedition in 2009-2010.

The cemetery site is located next to the River Skvyra, on a hill. The ohel is located at the foot of the hill, next to a water pipeline belonging to the neighbouring brickyard which owns the cemetery land. The site is also adjacent to private dwellings.

The cemetery site is undemarcated and (apart from the ohel) unmarked. It is not possible to ascertain its boundaries. It is not known whether the burial index for this cemetery is still in existence.

The cemetery site is located on the territory of the local brick factory. It is unmarked and undemarcated and there are no remaining gravestones at the site. Two gravestones can be found close to the site by the bank of the river and are at risk from vegetation and water damage and weather erosion.

They were previously used by local people and were bought back by the Chairman of the Skvyra Jewish community Yefim Davidovich Shvartsburd.

Inscription on the oldest gravestone:

פ איש נ
חשוב מ נחמיה
בר אפרים נפ ז
אלול תרנה תנ
צבה האמערע[ז]

(Trans. Here lies an important man, Mister Nehemiya, the son of Efraim. Died on 7 Elul 5655. May his soul be tied in the knot of life. Gomere [z]).

New Jewish cemetery

It started being used in the XIX century. All the tomb stones were stolen by local Ukrainians in 1941-1943. Now there is a large empty place covered with grass in the middle of the cemetery.
After the war Jews continued to bury their relatives here. In 1944, girl named Liusia was the first person to be buried there after the war. She came back from the evacuation together with her family and died of dysentery.

The cemetery is surrounded by a concrete wall, with a large iron gate at the entrance. The gate features a Star of David and two menorahs.

Gates of New Jewish cemetery

Gates of New Jewish cemetery

Date Of The Oldest Known Gravestone: 1880 – Khaya Feyga

New part of the cemetery

New part of the cemetery

PreWWII part of the cemetery

PreWWII part of the cemetery

Graves in the old part:

Graves in the new part:

Two old tombstones dating from 1880 and 1913 have been preserved in the old section (perhaps brought from the old cemetery).

Holocaust Mass graves:

In 1947, the remains of Holocaust victims from three different shootings in 1941 were reburied at the cemetery. There are lists with the names of people whose remains are in these mass graves but the lists are incomplete. In the early 2000’s, a monument was built on the largest mass grave.

Biggest mass grave

Biggest mass grave

List of the names:

Second mass grave

Second mass grave

Third mass grave

Third mass grave

Second Holocaust mass grave:

Head of Skvira Jewish Community Efim Shvartsburd near the Holocaust mass grave, May 9, 2017

Head of Skvira Jewish Community Efim Shvartsburd near the Holocaust mass grave, May 9, 2017

Genealogy

In 1941, local authorities evacuated the contents from a local archive but the cars transporting these documents were bombed by airplanes. Thus, the most valuable records on the history of Jews from Skvira was destroyed.

Geneologist Boris Finkelshtein (bob-fink@yandex.ru) researched many Archiv documents related to Skvira Jewish population in XIX-XX century. He provided next surnames and documents names:

  • Skvira revision tale by 1850 (Archiv of Kiev oblast, file 280/2/1012) -257 surnames

Third guild merchants: Baraban Belogorodskaya  Weisberg  Wooleys  Gronshteyn Zaslavsky  Zozovsky  Kaplun  Kardash  Kotlyarskii  Krasniy  Kryvitsky  Labunskiy Logvinsky  Lodak  Natenzon  Olin  Pereltsvayg  Polyak  Roytbarg  Segal  Sirota  Strokov Trachtenberg  Faibishenko  Chariton  Khinchin  Cherniavsky  Shapira  Eidelman Yampolsky
Bourgeois Avrutsky  Akselrud  Alberkant  Balaban  Bezfamilny  Belilovsky  Belokopyt Benditovich  Berezovsky  Berlyand  Berner  Bespechansky  Blelfer  Bloch  Bobel Bogoslavskih  Borshchahivskiy  Bosin  Bril  Brodsky  Brudnik  Bryl  Brysylovsky  Bubar Bugai  Burdinsky  Burstein  Bykov  Bialik  Weinstein  Weisberg  Vaysburd  Vaks  Vaser Wachmann  Vilsky  Vinokur  Wolinsky  Galant  Galiotka  Gamarnik  Gimelshteyn Gitelmaher  Glatshteyn  Glaze  Goyhtul  Golden  Goldman  Gokhshtein  Grinbarg Greenberg  Groisman  Gruz  Gruzman  Gudzenko  Hutz  Gupner  Gurovich  Gusak  Gufan Dikhtyar  Domen  Domentovsky  Donskoy  Dubenskiy  Ermulnik  Erusalimsky Zhivotovsky Zhitman  Zhuravitsky  Zhuravlinsky  Zarudinetsky  Zeltsah  Zilevits  Zolotussky  Kagan Kamenyatsky  Kapler  Katz  Kaczynski  Kvyat  Keyzerman  Kigel  Kizhberg  Kirgel Kitaevskiy  Kleyzerman  Kleiman  Kozlowski  Kolman  Kolomeets  Kolominsky  Koltun Koretsky  Kosy  Kotlyar  Krantz  Krasniy  Kreynin  Krivitsky  Kubernik  Kupershtein Kuryanetsky  Kushnir  Labunskiy  Laynburd  Lev  Lewenstein  Lieberman  Lipinets  Litvak Luzhanska  Lukatskii  Lukashevsky  Lustenberg  Lutskiy  Lvovskiy  Lublinskiy  Lyubomsky Magdalinskiy  Mazur  Makarovskiy  Medvedovsky  Merbarg  Mizis  Mirgorodsky  Mlonchin Mysenznik  Nemerovsky  Novogradsky  Novofastovsky  Olin  Order  Orlik  Pack Petrikovskiy  Pinka  Pogorily  Pogrebysky  Polyak  Pasternak  Prokobovsky  Prus  Pteyh Ptuh  Pyatigorskiy  Rabinovich  Rayzburd  Rahman  Revich  Rovinskii  Royzenblyum Royzental  Royzentul  Romanovsky  Rohlis  Rudak  Rudnik  Ruzhynskiy  Rumennik Ruyaninsky  Salganik  Sapozhnik  Segal  Siry  Smuglyansky  Snitsarenko  Sobel  Sobol Stulsky  Suslik  Taborovsky  Taran  Tarashchansky  Tonkonogiy  Toporovsky  Torchinskiy Ulis  Fager  Faynburd  Fastovsky  Feldman  Figa  Finkovsky  Frenkel  Friedel  Fur  Hantsin Hasmenut  Hasminuy  Heylovsky  Khinchin  Khirman  Hirhel  Khmelnitsky  Khodorkovsky Hurman  Chervinskiy  Chernobylskiy  Chertok  Chorny  Chudnovsky  Shapira  Saffran Schwartz  Shvartsbarg  Shvartsburd  Schwartzman  Shvidky  Shiber  Shnaper  Shpektor Spiegel  Shraibman  Shtekelbarg  Shterin  Shtof  Shtulsky  Shtut  Shumsky  Eidelman Ekshtut  Elenkrant  Yufed  Yampolsky  Janiszewski

  • Skvira revision tale by 1858 (Archiv of Kiev oblast, files 280/2/1490,1491) – 230 surnames

Abramovich  Akslirud  Alberpont  Amboym  Balaban  Bareschevsky Begelfer  Bezfamilny Benditovich  Berezovsky  Berlend  Berner Bespechansky  Bililovsky  Bloch  Boben Boguslavskiy  Borshchahovskiy  Bosin  Brodsky  Brudnik  Brusilovsky  Bryl  Bubar  Buzhai Burdyansky  Burstein  Bykov  Bialik  Vayzberg  Weinstein  Vaks  Vaser  Vatnik  Vachmann Veksler  Vilsky  Vinokyr  Woks  Wolinsky  Wolff  Galant  Gamarnik  Gimelshteyn Gitelmaher  Gladshtein  Glas  Goyhtut  Goldenvaser  Goldman  Goldrah  Golodka Goldenberg  Golfand  Goreskiy  Gokhshtein  Grinbarg  Groisman  Gruzman  Gudzenko Gysak  Dekhtyar  Dolin  Domskiy  Dubenskiy  Duvidovich  Erusalimsky  Zhivotovsky Zhitman  Zhuravitsky  Zak  Zeltseh  Zilovets  Zolotusky  Kagan  Kamyanetsky  Kapler Kaplun  Katz  Kvyat  Keyzerman  Kinzbarg  Kitaevskaya  Kichinsky  Kleiman  Kleinman Kobernik  Kozlowski  Kolomiets  Koltun  Colman  Kosiy  Kotlyar  Krant  Krantz Krasnoselskiy  Krasniy  Kreynin  Krivitsky  Kuryanets  Kuryanitsky  Kushnir  Labunskiy Lev  Lowenstein  Lieberman  Lipinets  Litvak  Loytburd  Lomish  Luzhanskiy  Lukatskii Lukashevsky  Lustenberg  Lutskiy  Lublinskiy  Lyubomsky  Magdalinskiy  Mazur Makarovskiy  Medvedovsky  Mesberg  Meshbarg  Mizis  Mirgorodsky  Mlonchin Mosezhnik  Nemerovsky  Novogradsky  Nofohvastovsky  Ovrutsky  Olen  Order  Orlik  Pack Petrinovsky  Pinka  Pinkovsky  Ploschinsky  Pogorelyi  Pogrebysky  Polyak  Pasternak  Prus Ptah  Ptukh  Pyatigorsk  Rabinovich  Rayzburd  Revich  Royzembman  Royzenblyum Royzentol  Royzentul  Romanovsky  Romantovsky  Rohlis  Rohman  Rudak  Rudnik Ruzhynskiy  Rumennik  Siderman  Siry  Smol  Smulchisky  Sobol  Solganik  Spector Spitsarenko  Stulsky  Sumskiy  Suslik  Taborovsky  Taran  Tarashchansky  Tonkonogiy Toporovsky  Torchinskiy  Ulis  Faer  Faibishenko  Faynburd  Fastovsky  Feldman  Figa Flick  Freydel  Frenkel  Friedman  Furmandsky  Chariton  Hasshinuy  Herman  Khinchin Khirman  Hirshan  Hitovsky  Khmelnitsky  Khodorkovsky  Horiton  Chervinskiy Chernobylskiy  Cherniy  Chisnik  Chortok  Chudnovsky  Shapira  Saffran  Schwartz Shvartsburd  Schwartzman  Shvidky  Sheyngayt  Shenglayd  Shiber  Shnaper  Shraibman Shteren  Shtivelmaher  Shtikselberg  Shtof  Shtut  Eidelman  Ekshpun  Elinkrach  Yufid Yampolsky  Janiszewski  Yarmulnik

  • Skvira census by 1897 (Archiv of Kiev oblast, files 384/10/all) – more than 1100 surnames

File 2: Berlyand Bernstein Bubar Bystritskii Vaks Vaser Goldfain Gulkin Dah Dubinsky Kagan Kesner Kimbarg Koltyansky Komorowski Kotlyar Lev Lembergsky Leszczynski Mirshtat Moroz Nerubay Oberfeld Pliskovsky Polyak Rapoport Royzentul Rubalsky Starik Tartakovsky Fainburg Frenkel Henven Tsalenko Chervinskiy Cernik Chernyansky Shapira Spiegel Spiegelman

All names here

File 3: Bliznyuk Vaisburd Weinstein Weinstock Vakser Wisniewski Herman Gershenovsky Goldman Gohbarg Granovsky Kamenker Kisilevskii Klotsman Koretsky Kosov Krasniy Lev Neiman Ortenberg Ostrovsky Pavolotsky Pekelis Pogrebysky Polyak Pasternak Rabinovich Reizin Rudyak Sandlerman Sverdlik Solitra Sosnowski Trigub Feld Feldman Fishman Khinchin Tsisin Chernobylskiy Shtekelberg Shulimok Eidelman Yagnyatinskii

File 4: Barskiy Bilov Brener Bialik Volodarsky Vylis Gertsenshtein Gekhtman Goldich Goldfarb Hochman Granovsky Gulkin Diner Drogobytsky Dulitsky Zaharin Zolotusky Kamenetskii Katz Kovelman Koltun Krol Lerner Mazoray Matsekh Muchnik Novogradsky Ostrovsky Perelmutor Petlyuk Pikovskaya Rabinovich Rokah Friedel Fuchs Henven Khodorkovsky Chemirovsky Cherniy Chudnovsky Shapira Shklovsky Shmuskis Spiegelman Steinbarg Yampolsky File 5 Beylysh Bendetovich Bialik Vekslyarsky Vinokur Vishnepolsky Singer Kenis Korelman Kotlyarskii Leiner Luzhanska Milman Pogrebysky Pyatigorskiy Resnik Samgorodetsky Slobodyanskii Tonkonogiy Fainerman Hazinsky Shentsvid Schindler Spiegel

File 6: Gunzburg Gorodetsky Zenkovsky Krasniy Kuzynka Lieber Litvak Magit Nudel Pilipovsky Pogrebysky Rohtman Talalaivskiy Feldman Tsysin Chuhtman Spiegel Yampolsky

File 7: Altman Bellov Gimelfarb Goldenvasser Noskin Cherepinski Chubynsky File 8 Volotsky Heschel Goldveht Zozovsky Klubok Lev Lipskis Polyak Rabinovich Rosenblum Shapira

File 9: Byk Heschel Gorbatiy Grushko Dubovis Zheleznyak Zak Zozovsky Korostyshevsky Krakovskiy Krentsel Krieger Kutseno Lembergsky Lipelis Magid Maza Miropolsky Moldovan Pavolotsky Pikovsky Podolsky Polyak Portnoi Reybarg Raider Roydbak Roffman Sykulya Tsarovsky Shapira Safran Spiegel

File 10: Apter Avramsky Bokatovsky Bagel Weintraub Volodarsky Vulis Zhivotovsky Zhuravitskaya Zaslavsky Zolotussky Kivenko Kilimnik Kovelman Koltyn Koltin Loytske Lukashevsky Mezhbard Moldovan Nafak Nelek Pakentriger Peysya Rabinovich Raitsin Resnik Tonkonog Chariton Hinche Tsysin Cherkassky Shobal Yaroslav File 11 Barskiy Birbraev Weinman Vaysburd Zazovskii Menis Nudel Rosenthal Yuhtman File 12 Bronstein Vakhnenko Vilfand Katz Krasniy Olavyansky Revichkis Shteynebrg File 13 Dub Zhuravitsky File 15 Vayntrub Heller Kosoy File 17 Averbukh Alter Balyasniy Benditovich Vekslyarsky Vinnitskiy Vinokur Vihnenko Giverts Glatshteyn Gluzman Goldner Gorodetsky Dubinsky Dudnik Dybner Zhuravitsky Kanevskiy Keyzerman Kleiman Kogan Kolodyazhni Korotik Krantz Krasnov Lev Levovsky Libson Lisin Loytsker Lyubarskii Markvit Maslivsky Matz Mitnick Molyarsky Orgel Ostrovsky Paltievich Pecheniy Pogrebisky Polinovsky Polyak Rabinovich Rayzburg Suslik Starik Fraer Friedland Khinchin Tsisin Chubynsky Shvartsburd Shehet Shechtman Sholnik Shulyatsky File 18 Balaban Berlyand Bit Borodyansky Borshchahivskiy Brovarnik Bystritskii Weinstein Vinarsky Vishnivetsky Halperin Gladshtein Zhukovsky Zaydik Singer Kamenker Kinzberg Kilimnik Colman Kreinis Kurolannik Lyubomsky Matz Mitnick Muzharovsky Nemirovsky Novogrebelsky Oberfeld Olik Pack Pener Pikovskaya Rabinovich Rabets Rapoport Rosenblum Rosenfeld Rosohovetsky Rofman Serlest Segal Sinayuk Smulyansky Spector Spivak Srulevich Starominsky Stotland Strokovsky Trilesky Toporovsky Ylik Usherenko Feldman Fur Khinchin Khodorkovsky Chervinskiy Cherniy Shames Shapira Shvartsburd Steinberg Shtekelberg Ezril Yampolsky

File 19: Averbukh Aroub Berlyand Bogopolskii Borukhovich Bosin Budnitskii Bialik Weinberg Wisniewski Volynskiy Galinsky Gamarnik Giler Gitelmaher Goyzenshteyn Grabarnik Greenstein Katsan Kivenko Knizhnik Kovelman Kolodyazhni Korotik Kremen Linov Luzhanska Margulis Marcus Miropolsky Mitnick Nirenberchek Nudel Nudelnik Olin Orgel Pack Panich Patyk Peker Pinkovsky Polovinchek Polyak Rabinovich Reiter Rohlis Ryaboy Svinarsky Serebrenik Segal Slepoi Smirun Smolar Spitkovsky Stolovitsky Suslik Tonkonogiy Trilesky Ychitel Faer Feldman Friedel Furmansky Chait Khinchin Khodorkovsky Chubynsky Shapira Schwartzman Shevchuk Shisterman Yagnyatinskii Yaroslavskiy

File 20: Alper Belilovsky Bendikovich Berezovsky Bobar Brener Brodsky Vaser Vulis Gamarnik Gorenstein Greenstein Dobrin Zak Zaslavsky Zelenko Zilbergut Zilberman Ites Kaczynski Kemelmaher Kinberg Koltyn Kosoi Kravets Krivitsky Kushnir Lev Litvak Luzhanska Magdalinskiy Mazishok Meshengiser Mitnick Mnuman Monastirskiy Nahmanovsky Nachshon Nudel Oberfeld Ozyadovsky Olin Olgart Peker Perchenko Radovskiy Resnik Rosenberg Salganik Safyanovsky Segal Smolar Tarashchansky Tashlyk Toporovsky Trachtenberg Ylis Ychitel Furmansky Hazinsky Chariton Herhel Chernov Chubynsky Safran Sherman Shisterman Shkolnik Shpektor Steinberg Shulyaker

File 21: Blitshteyn Gorodina Litvak Tartakovskaya

File 22: Volkovich Natenzon Polyak Rabinovich Chubynsky Schiglik

File 23: Vilfand Gorbach Zolotussky Krivitsky Lyubarskii Nemirovsky Faibishenko Schwartzman Shtirnbarg

File 24: Abelev Berezman Bogopolskii Gilshteyn Gimelfarb Gitelman Dubinsky Zherdenovsky Zozovsky Kagan Keyzerman Kinzberg Koifman Kosoy Kreinis Limon Lipkelis Litvak Mogilevskiy Nosovski Pogrebysky Podolsky Postrelka Rabinovich Rasinski Roizen Sklyarsky Tabachnik Toporovsky Feldman Khinchin Tsatskin Tsirulnik Cherniavsky Shapira Shvartsburd Shevelenko Shlyakov Shorodinsky Spiegel Ezril Yagnyatinskii

File 25: Broverman Bystritskii Vaser Vishnevetskii Wisniewski Volodarsky Geiser Gorbatiy Gutman Dubovis Zilmenzon Zozovsky Kagan Kvyat Kemelmaher Korostyshevsky Krakovskiy Krasnoselskiy Kremener Krupnik Leviter Lieber Lieberman Lipelis Loshak Matz Miropolsky Narodetsky Novogorodsky Oksengendler Olin Orgel Order Parinsky Postrelka Roizen Rofman Rybczynski Sinitsa Fink Cherkassky Shapira Schwartzman Sherman

File 28: Balyasnaya Berdichevsky Bere Berlyand Bosis Burkatovsky Weinberg Vinarsky Vinnitskiy Gelman Gitelmaher Gluz Golfman Hoffmann Davydov Deitch Desyatnik Elskiy Zhornitskii Zaslavsky Zozovsky Itkes Kagan Kantor Kehr Kinzbarg Kipnes Klid Kovelman Kogan Kosy Kofman Leyzorzon Liberson Liflyandskiy Lukashevsky Lvovskiy Matz Menis Men’ Morgulis Motenko Nayshtat Neris Nerubay Ortenberg Ostrovsky Pickman Pogrebysky Podgur Polyak Portnoi Rabinovich Rapoport Revich Rosenfeld Rybczynski Sigalovsky Sokolovsky Spector Spivak Tversky Tripolski Feldblyum Feldman Khinchin Shafarenko Shvahman Shikhman Shlayn Shor Shuf Yagnyatinskii Yaroslavl

File 29: Baran Bard Brodskaya Bialik Weinstein Vennikov Volodarsky Galinsky Gelman Giler Goldnarbyt Golinskii Gorelko Gohtul Gudis Gutman Dubinsky Dyvinsky Entys Zelman Ilinskii Kagan Kantorovich Katz Kaczynski Kehr Kivenko Kinzberg Kislik Kovelman Koltyn Kononovsky Kotlyarskii Kofman Lev Levit Lewites Lipovetsky Litvak Lvovskiy Matsekh Mekibel Melskiy Mitnick Morgulis Musievsky Nemirovsky Neris Nirenberg Novogrebelsky Orgel Parinsky Patyk Pogrebysky Podgur Polyak Popelyansky Portnoi Rabinovich Rosovsky Rofman Rybczynski Spivak Teplitskii Torchinskiy Ulanovskii Ylis Frantsman Furman Khmelnitsky Chernis Chernov Shapira Sharfman Shvartsburd Schwartzman Shkolnik Shmunis Schneider Schneiderman Shor Spiegelman Shraiberg Shtulberg Ekshtut Yadilovich

File 30: Avratiner Batyr Berlyand Breytburd Budnitskii Bialik Weinberg Veksler Volodarsky Galman Gerner Gluzman Goldich Goldman Gofshtein Grinbarg Groisman Dolin Zhidovetsky Zhitomir Katz Kleiman Kliots Klotsman Kosov Kosoi Kosy Kofman Krivitsky Laynburd Lev Livshits Matsekh Men’ Milman Mostovaya Novofastovsky Ovetsky Pilecki Ploschansky Povarov Pogrebysky Podgur Porinsky portnoi Pasternak Potyk Prilutsky Rabinovich Revich Resnick Reizins Remennik Royzenfeld Rosovsky Rubalsky Rudyak Rymarenko Soliterman Sosnowski Sosnoviy Suslik Talskaya Tonkonogiy Toporovsky Feygis Hazinovich Khirman Khutornoi Tseytenberg Cherniavsky Shamis Shapira Schwartzman Shevts Shilenko Shmushkovitch Schneiderman Schiglik Adelman Yagnyatinskii File 31 Birfir Broynshteyn Weinstein Vaysburd Vaks Vahnyansky Vinokur Gershini Gluzman Goldman Davydov Zaslavsky Kliger Kubernik Lev Matsekh Pickman Rosenwasser Sendic Tversky Tevish Ulitsky Feigen Feldman Tsarovsky Shilenko Shor Shtulbarg

File 32: Bard Binder Borkatovsky Wasserman Ginsberg Grinbarg Groisman Dolin Kaplun Katz Coirah Koifman Komorowski Kosy Kravets Krivitsky Kushnir Markman Oberfeld Ostrobrod Ostrominsky Rabinovich Revich Rosenthal Rybczynski Slavinskiy Toporovsky Ylis Frumys Black Shvartsburd Shvahman Shraibman Yagnyatinskii

File 33: Burkatovsky

File 34: Barshcheuski Brodsky Burkatovsky Vilfand Zavalyansky Zaslavsky Torchinskiy Feinstein

File 36: Gorodetsky Kisilenko Reiter Cherniy Shapira Shkolnik

File 37: Barschevsky Broverman Dorozhansky Kleiman Krivitsky Linetskiy Morgulis Osochansky Pasternak Rabin Revich Senzon Shapira File 38: Bogopolskii Weinstein Zaslavsky Katz Krasniy Kutsen Litvak Mazur Novogradsky Orinshteyn Ostromogilny Pokrashevsky Pokrashevsky Rabinovich Starik Toporovsky Faerman Hanevsky Yarmolinsky

File 39: Azril Alper Atlas Babichenko Bezfamilny Beigel Vinetsky Volodarsky Wolfowitz Vygodner Gergelis Gerson Giter Goldfeld Hoffmann Greenberg Dubovis Zhuravitsky Zak Zalatussky Kagan Kivenko Kovelman Koltun Levenzon Liser Mazor Matusow Meerchenko Mezvinsky Mendelsohn Mogilev Natanzon Novogrebelsky Oberfeld Olin Order Orenstein Pavolotsky Patrikovsky Petyh Pechersky Pinsahovich Pliskovskaya Pogrebiysky Postolov Raigorodskii Rapoport Rafalovich Rahman Rosenfeld Ruyaninsky Sandler Segal Slavinskaya Slobodinsky Starik Strokovsky Tashlyk Tversky Tulchinsky Figa (Feiga) Fishbein Flantsbeyn Friedman Furman Khatskelevich Hashmintsev Khinchin Chernoglaz Chorniy Shapira Shafarenko Chafra Shvartsburd Shevchuk Sheikhetov Shlyakov Spiegelman Shpitsinetsky Shtivelmaher Yasinovka

File 40: Averbukh Algern Alman Artshteyn Arsh Bak Barskiy Beigel Belotitsky Borislavskiy Borodyansky Brier Breytburd Bril Bialik Vaysburd Vaks Vaser Vekslyarsky Volodarsky Vulis Gabovich Goldfarb Horowitz Gudes Gudzenko Gudzenko Dolina Dopter Dubinskaya Entin Zhitman Zaslavsky Zakharenko Zakharenko Zolotussky Ignatovskii Kagan Kaplun Kastlyatsky Kivenko Kiperman Kleiner Kolodishner Kuralnik Lev Limon Lishchinskaya Loytsker Meerchenko Miropolsky Mostovoi Obukhovskaya Olgert Pisnovetsky Pogrebisky Polyak Pasternak Indulging Pyatersky Rabinovich Rak Rapoport Rahlis Rahman Resnik Rubanov Rymenik Sapozhnik Simenko Spector Strokovsky Tetievsky Tifes Tonkonog Ylis Urman Fire Farshansky Feldman Finke Furman Khinchin Tsilenko Cherepinski Cherniy Shames Schwartzman Shechtman Shir Spiegel Yagnyatinskii Yampolsky Janowski

File 41: Domantovsky Krasniy Landa Chubynsky

Comments

comments

9 Comments

  1. Дорогие друзья, моя фамилия Сквирская. Мои предки из тех краев. Наконец-то я узнала происхождение фамилии. Спасибо вам большое!

  2. Большое спасибо всем тем кто создал етот сайт.
    Моего пра-прадеда Пинхаса Ходорковского убили во время
    одного из погромов бандиты Тютюника. К сожалению он не смог выехать в Харбин а оттуда в Америку.
    Не судьба значит. Его внучка Буся Ходорковская (90 лет) и его внук Петр (85 лет)
    живут сейчас в Америке осуществив мечту деда.

    Несмотря на все муки, жертвы и погромы евреи родившиеся на Украине помнят не
    только зло причиненное им , но и многих хороших людей, которые им помогали.
    Спасибо что помяанули двоюродного маминого брата Давида Маргулиса, Героя Советского
    Союза , кавалера ордена Александра Невского командира артиллерийской бригады.
    После воины он получил 10 лет лагереи. Донес на него друг по Академии Фрунзе и посадили его за анекдот. Похоронен Давид в Ленинграде.
    К сожалению вы не упомянули факты благотворительности еврейских буржуев, так мои пра-прадед был упомянут в книге краеведа о Сквире как благотворитель и почетный гражданин города. Я думаю он был не один такой.

    • Шалом!

      А о какой книге речь?
      Как называеться? У Вас есть возможность ее выслать на shtetl.history@gmail.com

    • Ян, здравствуйте!
      Моего дедушку звали Шая Ходорковский, его отца Шам или Шаммай. Вы случайно не знаете были ли у Вашего пра-деда братья? Я разыскиваю Ходорковских по Сквирской губернии? Спасибо, Александра.

    • Уважаемый Ян, меня тоже очень интересует упомянутая Вами книга. Можно ли узнать точное название и год издания, или копию? С наилучшими пожеланиями, Катя

      • Катя, здравствуйте! Как можно с Вами связаться? Я бы хотела узнать про Вашу семью Ходорковских? Может они были родственниками?
        Я живу в Америке, можем делать переписку по электронной почте. Заранее благодарю, Александра.

  3. I would like to know more about Khaya Feyga, the person whose name is on the oldest known tombstone in the New Jewish Cemetery. My maternal grandmother was Anna Fega Rabinowitz, who was born in Skvira in 1891.
    steven H. Hirsch
    Stevenh_hirsch@yahoo.com

  4. I am looking to find my Grandfather David Solomonovich Gudzenko born in skvira in1884 or later

  5. I am searching for records on my Dekhtyar (dekhtyar) family…a ram Abraham, his son (my father) was Vasily. he had a daughter named Katerina, but Vasily ended up in German Pow camps during Ww 2. A ram was sent to Siberia. I am unable to find any documents that registered my dad Vasily’s birth in the Ukraine. Olga dekhtyar

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