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Slavuta

Slavuta

Slavuta,  city (since 1938) in Khmelnitskiy district, Ukraine .

Slavuta was annexed by Russia after the second partition of Poland (1793) and was in the province of Volhynia until the 1917 Revolution .  In 1932 Slavuta was included in Vinnitsa district, in 1937 Slavuta became a part of Kamenets-Podolskiy district. In 1954 city became a part of Khmelnitskiy district.

Beginning

Slavuta was founded as the family seat of the Sanguszko princes. In 1633 Slavuta get Magdeburg rights.

First mention about synagogue in Slavuta appeared in archive documents in 1731. In 1765 the poll tax was paid by 246 Jews registered in Slavuta.

Mosheh Shapira was a rabbi in Slavuta at the end of XVIII century. As his rabbinical position was unsalaried, Mosheh made his living by establishing a large press in 1791, specializing in handsome editions of religious books—in particular, volumes of the Talmud and of halakhah and responsa. Mosheh’s two sons, Shemu’el Avraham Abba and Pinḥas, operated the press with him, and the business flourished because of their activity and the prestige of their lineage. The press was identified by maskilim as Hasidic, even though works of Hasidism and Kabbalah were not the major part of its output.

Three magnificent editions of the Talmud printed at Slavuta earned particular fame and were highly regarded outside Russia as well. In 1834, Menaḥem Mann Romm began to publish a rival edition of the Talmud in Vilna, complete with approbations by important Lithuanian rabbis; this edition was soon identified with Misnagdim and their circles. The Slavuta printers considered this edition an infringement on their exclusive right, guaranteed by numerous rabbis, to publish the Talmud for a fixed span of 25 years. Dozens of rabbis and tsadikim, from all parts of Eastern Europe, played a part in the great dispute that ensued, and in the mutual recriminations and bans; economic considerations of copyright were involved, as well as ideological and social tensions between Hasidim (who supported the printers of Slavuta) and Misnagdim (who supported the Vilna printers).

Book printed in Slavuta press

Book printed in Slavuta press

In 1835, when the controversy was at its height, the Slavuta printing press was closed down by Russian authorities, after the brothers had been denounced for their part in the death of a bookbinder working for them, who had been found hanged in the town synagogue of Slavuta. Even though it was clear that he committed suicide, the brothers were charged with being responsible for his slaying as an informer. They were arrested, imprisoned in Kiev for three years, and finally condemned to harsh physical punishment and deported to Siberia. After intercessions, their punishments were reduced and they were banished to Moscow, where they lived for about 20 years under difficult conditions. Only in 1855, following the death of Tsar Nicholas I, were they pardoned and permitted to return to the Pale of Settlement. Many popular legends were associated with this event; particularly well known in this connection is Y. L. Peretz’s short story “Dray matones” (Three Gifts).

There were 1,658 Jews registered in the community in 1847 and 4 ,891 in 1897 (57% of the total population).

In 1905 there were 3 synagogues. Before the Revolution there was a header nearby Slavuta marketplace on Shkilna Str.

In 1910th famous ethnographer S. An-sky visited Slavuta and made next photos of Jewish life in last years Pale of Settlement:

In archive of JDC (here) I found interesting document about pogroms in Slavuta during Civil War 1917-1920

Joint Distribution Committie report June 1929 from Slavuta gave short description of Civil War pogroms and economic situation in 1920s.

Slavuta is a large town, in good condition. It is bordered on all sides by beautiful villas which are situated in a pine-wood. Economically Slavuta was a thriving town. Its picteresgue geographical situation, healthy climate and confortable villas made it a health resort in the summer with many visitors. Nearly one third of the population were enabled to earn their livelihood from this fact.

Slavuta enterpreneurs in 1913

Slavuta enterpreneurs in 1913

The total population of Slavuta was 12,000 in 1917 and this number had practically not changed. The number of Jews is also the same as it was the – 6000.

Before the pogroms there were 500 Jewish houses which are all still in existence. However the number of Jewish shops has increased from 160 to 200, though the shops are much poorer in merchandise. Slavuta was less affected than other adjoining towns by the wave of pogroms. Banditism however periodically assumed threatening dimensions. The number of organised pogroms was 3, as follows: 1. March 1919, organised by Petlura, 10 persons murdered, 40 wounded 2. August 1919, organized by Polish troops, 7 murdered, 3 wounded 3. September 1920, a disorganized partisan band 3 murdered, 3O wounded.

A great many women were violated during the last pogrom, but the precise figure has not been established. The total number of pogromised was about 60. The number of widows is about 30, orphans number 15 and half orphans 40. There are 15 invalids.

There are very few pogromised refugees in the town. The number of such from Nicolaev, Kherson and Elizabethgrad Gubernia does not exceed 50. There refugees were delayed on their way to Poland and are now unable to cross the frontier or to return home. A number of them have already settled down in Slavuta.

"Slavuta. Beginning of XXcentury".Picture by M. Perytskiy

“Slavuta. Beginning of XXcentury”.Picture by M. Perytskiy

Though Slavuta has lost a good deal of its economic significance economic conditions are satisfactory. Some social-gconomic changes have taken place, – but its results are favorable.

The most important industrial organisations in Slavuta, with statistics about its workers are listed as follows: – 4 Primitive Weaving Factories with 40 employees (10 Jews), before the war there were 8 such factories with 80 workmens – Earthenware Factory with 300 employees (120 Jews) – Paper Mill with 75 employees (15 Jews) – 2 Saw-Mill with 130 employees (5 Jews) – Tannery with 10 employees (5 Jews) – Electric Station with 7 employees (0 Jews) – Foundry with 10 employees (8 Jews) – 2 Steam Flour-Mills with 12 employees (6 Jews) – Horse-shoe Factory with 12 employees (5 Jews)

Factories not functioning at present have not been included.

The Jewish working population may be classified as follows: About 800 persons consists of tradesmen, shopmen, owners of villas and persons without any definite profession. This group forms the majority. The number of artisans is also comparatively large about 350 persons. There are also ahout 60 employees and 170 industrial workmens.

RELIEF RENDERED : The Jewish population of Slavuta has been greatly assisted by the Polish Unit of the JOINT during the time of the Polish occupation. The JOINT organised 3 child feeding stations where about 800 children were fed. It maintained 3 schools, 2 children’s homes, the Jewish Hospital, Homes for Aged and also constructed a Public Bath. It delivered loans and administered individual relief. A limited amount of relief was given by the Evocom in 1921 which subventioned of the kitchen, Children’s Home and at the School.

The only children’s institution in Slavuta is the Public School where 80 (40 boys and 40 girls) children averaging from 7 to 13 years are taught. These children are from the poorest families. This group of 80 children is comprised of 2 orphans, 25 half orphans and 53 children with parents.

CREDIT: Before the Pogroms there existed a Society of Mutual Credit but at present there is no such organization, though the large group of artisans and workmen greatly need such an institution.

After Civil War

Jewish School was founded in 1918. In 1928-1929 there were 334 pupils (children of laborers – 57, children of clerks – 43, children of artisans – 161, children of bourgeoisie – 30, others – 40). This school mentioned in JDC report. In Jewish school in 1929-1932 studied upcoming Hero of the Soviet Union L.H.Papernyk.

Jewish population of Slavuta:
1765 – 246 jews
1847 – 1658 jews
1897 – 4891 (57%)
1926 – 4701 jews
1932 – 4925 (42%)
1939 – 5102 (33%)
1945 – 2026 jews
1965 ~ 3000 jews
1999 – 985 (0.2%)

In 1921 the Soviet authorities confiscated firms and residential homes of wealthy residents. In January 1921  were nationalized Derman and Kapetskiy power plants and Zimmerman’s Phinhas. In May 1921 Executive Committee decided to move Slavutsky Liskom (Forest Committee) to Foyhel house, in Shapiro house was placed kindergarten.

Under Soviet rule the community’s institutions were destroyed. The Jewish population numbered 4,701 in 1926 (44 .9%) . In June 7 , 1929 Jews initiate creation of agricultural associations. Their names are Berko, Kaplan, Leyb Barash, H.Smolyar, L.I.Biderman, B.Blits, I.Kats, H.Shvartsman, Gres Ishiya, Margulis Numa.

In 1935 were closed 3 synagogue: – Novomistna Synagogue (Gorinskaya Str.) became a library – Great Synagogue (Shkolniy Str., 1) became House of Defence – Kozak Synagogue (Dzerzhinskogo  Str.) became a museum

Grave of Moshe Shapiro - legendary founder of Slavuta printing press. Foto from http://photohunt.org.ua/

Grave of Moshe Shapiro – legendary founder of Slavuta printing press. Foto from http://photohunt.org.ua/

But Jewish community still has after this 3 functioning synagogue (Zavodopromishlennaya Str., 80; Dzerzhinskogo  Str. 16; Shkolniy Str., 2).

Political repression 1937-39 years impacted Jewish population of Slavuta too. Next people were repressed: Brandis Moses Avrumovych (born 1902), Broder Moses Mordkovych (born 1903), Broder Jankel Mordkovych (born 1899), Broder Basia Mordkovna (born 1909), Borushko Berko Davidovich (born 1883), Buntsis Ayzik Shayovych (born 1903), Hehblit Avrum Meyerovych (born 1895), Halperin Borukh Shmulevych (born 1906), Hrinvald Itzik-Aron Hershkovych (born 1863), Katsyv Azril Leibovich, Potashnyuk Phinehas Shmulovych (born 1904), Shmuter Moses Yonovych (born 1903), Shmuter Leiba Iosifovish (born 1888), Shteynfeld Judas Samoylovich (born 1895).   Bern Srul Yankelevych (born 1903), master of city power plant, which was shot September 19, 1938 only because May 1, 1937 light was missing in the officers house. These city residents were later rehabilitated.

Holocaust

With the start of World War II some Jewish families managed to evacuate, but most Jews left in the occupied territories. Germans forces occupied Slavuta at July 7, 1941. In August 18, 1941 nazi administration registered 1390 jews in Slavuta (this document with names was found in Khmelnitskiy archiv, it is a real death list).

In August 22, 1941 Nazi authorities forced jewish population to pay 20000 rubles of contribution.

From August, 15 to September 3, 1941 in city was located second coy of 45 Reserve Police Battalion which conduct 2 “action”: August 18, 1941 – 322 jews were killed, August 30, 1941 – 911 jews were killed.

Slavuta in the list of destoyed communities in Yad Vashem

Slavuta in the list of destoyed communities in Yad Vashem

Ghetto was created on 2nd March, 1942. There were placed jews from Slavuta, Berezdov, Krasnostav, all population was more than 5000 people. Old people and more than 200 newborn children were killed in the first days of ghetto creation. Children were throw into the well. Most people starving in ghetto and many died. Ghetto was located in the region of current Khmelnitskogo Str., Zlagody Str. and Volinskaya Str. 500 jewish women were send from ghetto to concentration camp between Slavuta nad Shepetovka.

On June 25, 1942 about 5,000 Annopol, Berezdov, Krasnostav, and Slavuta Jews, who had been concentrated in the Slavuta ghetto, were shot to death at the site of a former Soviet military base near the town by SD men with the assistance of Ukrainian police.

After the mass shooting Nazis catch 13 Jews who were hiding and kill them.

In September 1942 a number of Slavuta Jewish craftsmen, who were still alive after the liquidation of the Slavuta ghetto in June 1942, were shot to death in the area of Slavuta. More than 5000 jews were killed in Slavuta and Slavuta region during WWII. We know only the names of 1595 Slavuta Jews among 2296 who were killed during the war.

Lushnikov’s family hide jew B.Farman and received Righteous Among the Nations status in 2001.

All details of these terrible things described in book of local historian Stanislav Frantsovich Kovalchuk.

Slavuta was liberated by Red Army at January 15, 1944.

After WWII

After liberation Jews began returned to city from evacuation. In early 1945 the city’s population was 7922 citizens, including 2,026 Jews. In Slavuta settled Jewish families who lived before the war in the rural area and in other areas.

Hendmade calendar of Slavuta's Rabbi Liberzon which was presented by member of "Right Sector" to Brodskiy Synagogue in Kiev during Euromaidan Revolution in 2014

Hendmade calendar of Slavuta’s Rabbi Liberzon which was presented by member of “Right Sector” to Brodskiy Synagogue in Kiev during Euromaidan Revolution in 2014

Jewish religious community was registered in September 4, 1945. The founders of the community were: Liberzon Yitzhak-Hdal Benyaminovych (born 1904), Barash Itskhok Shapsovych, Moishe Ihelevych Vinokur, 1898, Moshe Gutman I. (born 1888), Zokenmaher Shama Abramovich (born 1892), Kaplan Shmulevych Berko (born 1882), Kaplun Yitzhak Meyerovych (born 1883), Kelzon Aron Pinsahovych (born 1874), Korchik Avrum Wolfovitch (born 1900), Krantman Moishe Shmulevych (born 1902), Peltsman Itskhok Srulevych (born 1893), Tuler Itskhok Moishe-Hayimovych, Ferdman Aron-Shloma Froyimovych (born 1892), Tsam Shmul Meyerovych (born 1879), Shleper Ayzik Simhovych (born 1897), Schuster Simon Abramovich (born 1898).

Synagogue was opened in Slavuta in 1945 (it was only one synagogue in Khmelnitskiy oblast).

Heads of Slavuta religious jewish community in the postwar years were elected (in the order): Chaim Kramer Mardkovych, Krel Michel Berkovich, Buntsis Ayzik Itskovych, Shoyhed Boris Evseyevich, Shleper Hedal Shleymovych.

Rabbi Itshak-Gdal Liberzon (1904-1982)

Rabbi Itshak-Gdal Liberzon (1904-1982)

Slavutas Liberzon Yitzhak-Hdal Benyaminovych (born 1904) became a Rabbi after the war. He studied when a child in Slavuta and Chisinau Heder and Iyeshuva, has a good knowledge of the Judaism canons. Before the war, Liberzon I-H.B. worked in the city as an artisan-bookbinder, during the war he evacuated in Kazakhstan, worked on bakery. His father Liberzon Nuhim (1882-1941 years) was Rabbi in Slavuta synagogue before the war. Many years before rabbi in Slavuta was his maternal grandfather Chaim Shapiro. According Liberzon M.I., daughter of the last Slavuta rabbi, their family comes from Hasidism founder Baal Shem Tov.

Yitzhak-Hdal Liberzon was a sincerely religious man and retain good memory till the last days. He died in Slavuta in 1982. Next Rabbi became Sheyhed Boris Evseyevich (born 1912 – died 1998 in Israel).  He also had a religious education.

All activities of Jewish religious community were always under the control of the Soviet regime. Religious community annually reported to the district executive committee on its work.

In 1974 approximately  250 Jews visit synagogue (25 persons for every day prayer, 50 for Saturday prayer, 200 for Rosh Ashana, 250 for Sukkot). Matza wasn’t baked in synagogue. Shames duties performed Kramer Yenya and Zeylikman Pesa, mourners – Tsam Shmul, Verstat Leyb and Krel Meyer.

In 1965 began the decline of the Jewish population in Slavuta. According to the census in 1979 there lived 1340 jews, and 943 in 1989.

This video show prayers in Slavuta synagogue in 1988. Video was made by Etnographic Expedition from S.-Peterburg.

Next video is an interview of old Slavuta’s Jew in 1988 which was made by same expedition.

In 1990’s Jewish population has decreased significantly due to the departure to Israel, the U.S. and other countries. 369 Jews emigrate in 1992-1998.

However the Jewish community still exist in Slavuta.  Jewish Sunday school was opened for the study of the native language. Jewish children rested in summer camps with participation of Israeli organizations, where he studied history and culture of the Jewish people.

Geneology

Architecture

Much information below I find in book of local historian Stanislav Frantsovich Kovalchuk.

In the beginning of XX century Jews lived in Slavuta mainly on the left side of the river Utky in the area of modern street Shevchenko Square, Volimskaya, Danla Galickogo, Zlagody, Khmelnytskoho, Cerkovna and Kozacka.

Wealthy Jews, shops owners, industrial tenants lived on the main street in good-quality houses (Foyhel and Shapiro houses on B.Khmelnitsky Street and others). Poor Jews crowded in wooden houses with clay floors. On the Jewish part of town was only two wells used by the Jewish families. One of them on the market square, the second at the end of Zameyskoyi Str. (now Volynska Str).

Synagogue

Find only few photos of synagogue. More info was here. Synagogue is very old, was build more than 200 years ago. It was closed only during WWII and was working during Soviet times. After the war many  jewish books were brought there from destroyed synagogues and prayer houses of Rovno and Khmelnitsliy regions. Building is used as synagogue and as a office of Jewish Community.

Address: Sholo-Aleihema Str., 19

Slavuta Jewish Cemetery

Consist of old and new part.

New part:The Jewish cemetery was established in 1902. Buried here are Tsadic of Hasidic Dynasty Shapiro and Rab. Itshak-Gdal Liberzon (1904-1982.).Reached by town street, access is open to all. A continuous fence with non-locking gate surrounds the unlandmarked cemetery.  The cemetery has no special sections. Some tombstones have traces of painting on their surfaces, iron decorations or lettering, with bronze decorations or lettering, other metallic elements, portraits on stones and/or metal fences around graves. Municipality owns site used for Jewish cemetery only.The cemetery was vandalized prior to World War II. Jewish individuals within country and abroad and Jewish groups within country did re-erection of stones, patched broken stones, cleaned stones, cleared vegetation, fixed wall and fixed gate 1945-48, 1990. Jewish community pays the regular caretaker. Vegetation overgrowth and water drainage are seasonal problems.

Old part: Oldest graves are from19th century.

Address: Volinskaya St., 100

Holocaust Mass Graves

Near former military town

This place called now a Memory Fileld. Jews from Slavuta ghetto was killed at this place at  June 25, 1942. After the war commision find there 11 graves. Monument was erected in 1986.

Near this place was located german’s Grosslazaret 301, a military camp for wounded captives. According to soviet commision in this “hospital” were killed more than 150000 soviet soldiers.

Near sewing factory

A monument to 300 Jewish children who were murdered by the Germans

A monument to 300 Jewish children who were murdered by the Germans

More than 300 jewish child were thrown into a well during ghetto liquidation in March 1941. There was a building with basement where were killed  old jews and cripples from Annopol Ghetto. Monument was erected in 1990.

Holocaust victims from small villages around Slavuta:

Golovli village

Perenshteyn Zus Avrumovich, born 1925 Gershman Haїm Yankelevich, born 1889 Gershman PEPPER Azdrіleva, born 1897

Comments

comments

2 Comments

  1. Добрый день!Пишет Вам Иосиф Кокет из Израиля.У меня к Вам просьба.Мои родители до войны жили селе Красностав Каменец Подольской обл.
    Во время оккупации немцами, все родственники, по линии отца и матери, были уничтожены.Из воспоминаний моей мамы,до войны из их местечка ,
    уехали ее родственники в г .Славута.Фамилия их Гринфельд .Нейх и его женаБетя
    Сообщите пожалуйста ,может что -то известно о их судьбах.
    С уважением Иосиф

  2. Добрый день, Иосиф!

    О Красноставе есть отдельная статья http://jewua.org/krasnostav/
    Что касаеться Ваших родственников, то в Книге Памяти Славуты значиться:
    Гринвальд Ноех Ушерович, 1912 года рождения, портной, расстрелян фашистами 27.06.1942 года. Похоронен в братской могиле в г. Славуте

    Из погибших женщин, с похожими именами и фамилией, есит только по с. Красностав, но не по г. Славуте:
    Гринфальд Бейла Иосифовна, с.Красностав, крестьянка, расстреляна фашистами в 1941 году, похоронена в брасткой могиле в с.Красностав

    Больше никаких доступных сведений у меня нет :(

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