Talna, Tolne, טאלנא (Yiddish), Talne (Polish), Talne – Тальне – Tal’ne (Ukrainian), Talnoe, Talnoya (Alternative Name), Tal’noye, Talnoe – Тальное (Russian)
Talne is a city in Cherkasy Oblast (province) of Ukraine.
The Jews of Talne were mentioned for the first time in connection with Cossack pogroms when the local Jewish community was destroyed in 1768. In 1848, according to the census, the Jewish community of Talne consisted of 1,807 people, while in 1897, the Jewish population increased to 5,452 people (57%). In 1854, Rabbi David Tversky (1808—1882) arrived in the town, and the place became a centre for Hasidim.
In 1910, a Talmud Torah existed in Talne, as well as a private Jewish college for men, a synagogue and four other prayer houses. The Talmud Torah was opened in 1889, and 59 people studied there at the expense of the community. In 1912 – the number of pupils had reached about 100. In 1912, the population of Talne included 3,810 Orthodox Christians, 40 Catholics and around 10,000 Jews.
Civil War pogroms
The local Jewish population suffered heavily in the years 1919-20 from pogroms by many peasant gangs, as well as the White Army soldiers, who pillaged and burned most of the town in the summer of 1919.
Jewish population of Talne:
1848 – 1,807 jews
1897 – 5,452(57%)
1912 ~ 10000 (77%)
1926 – 4,169 (39%)
1939 – 1,866 (15%)
2013 ~ 20 jews
The announcement of Ukrainian national forces regarding the forthcoming pogrom in 1919 read: “… All Russian peasants should display icons in their windows so that the Cossacks do not attack the villagers… Everything must be finished in half an hour”.
The pogrom of May 13, 1919 was organized by local residents with 15 people killed and about 50 injured.
In early September, the Soviet troops were driven out by Tiutiunnyk’s gang who organised the killing of 53 people.
The biggest massacre took place on September 19, 1919, under Denikin’s rule with houses looted and the burning of a part of the town.
In early October 1920 Budenny’s troops defeated a Jewish self-defense, robbing and murdering many of the Jewish population.
Pogrom of May 13, 1919 Testimony of the Student Avrum Schwarzmann
Talnoye is a town in the canton of Uman, on the railroad line Tzvetkovo-Kristinovka, four versts from Uman. Its inhabitants number 15,000; about 8,000 Jews. Early in February the withdrawal of the Petlurist forces began to the line Znamenka-Tzvetkovo-Kristinovka. Under the Directory, with the permission of the authorities, a Jewish Night Watch, with 15 or 20 rifles, had been formed. On February 8 an attack occurred on the Jewish post, which was disarmed, robbed and beaten. Two days later four squadrons arrived in Talnoye. The soldiers went into the town and before the eyes of the whole population entered the houses of Jews and carried out all the property and took it to the station. After this there were incessant attacks and looting. The militia was powerless.
Gaidamak’s pogrom announcement
A company of guards came to keep order, and the Jewish population assumed the responsibility of feeding and clothing it. But the guard itself took part in the looting. The town suffered especially from the third Gaidamak cavalry regiment, which incessantly terrorized the Jewish population. Owing to the arrival of the Zvenigorod regiment under the command of Pavlovsky, there were no human lives lost in the town; there were only beatings and robberies.
Early in March the bolsheviki took Zvenigorod, but Talnoye at this time still remained in the hands of the Petlurists. The situation on the front was shifting for about two weeks. Approximately on March 19 Talnoye was taken by the 8th Soviet regiment, which also started looting. Two weeks later (after another capture by the Petlurists of Teplik) the withdrawal of the Soviet forces from Uman and Kristinovka began in the direction of Talnoe. On the way many bandits joined the Soviet forces, and for three days plundering in Talnoe did not
cease. A part of the Chigirin regiment was stationed here. At the same time the local Revolutionary Committee, in which four out of twelve members were Jews, imposed a contribution of three million rubles on the local bourgeoisie. Requisitions of goods and wares which had escaped the looting were made upon the Jewish population. For non-payment of the contribution the bourgeois were arrested; of these 90% were Jews.
After some time the Chigirin detachment disarmed the Revolutionary Committee and the detachment of the Extraordinary Committee, with cries of “Away with the Jewish regime!” Soon the weapons were returned to the Russian members of the detachment and the Revolutionary Committee was reestablished, but Jews no longer occupied prominent places.On May 7th a peasants assembly was held, at which the local officers, dissatisfied with the registration of officers and also with the actions of the Revolutionary Committee, with cries of “Away with the Soviet regime, away with the Jews, away with Trotzky,” demanded an explanation of the president of the Revolutionary Committee concerning the registration that had been ordered and concerning the lack of articles of prime necessity. On the next day the president of the Extraordinary Committee, Gross, appeared with a detachment to give the explanations, and the assembly asked him to hand over all weapons to a new militia, which was chosen on the spot. Former officers were placed at the head of it, who took a number of rifles away from the detachment. An irregular firing began. The peasants of the assembly dispersed. The ringleaders (Polischuk, Zakhary Oleinik, and others) in the same night rode into the surrounding villages, collected the peasants by the ringing of bells, and told them fabulous inventions of this sort, that the Jews in Talnoe were plundering the church, killing Christians, etc., and that they had had difficulty in escaping from there. This served as the start for a pogrom. On May 13 the rebels began to approachTalnoe under the leadership of former officers and thugs ofTalnoe. The Soviet detachment fled. A proclamation was posted that all Jews must hand in their weapons within 24 hours.
Talnoe pogrom victim
There was another proclamation that all militiamen should remain in their places, except Jews. A former associate of the Central Rada, Arseni Melnichenko, was named as commandant of the town. No small part in the rebel movement was played by the Ukrainian Left Social Revolutionaries, at the head of whom was Karpov, inspector of the fourth class of the city schools. On May 14 the commandant called an assembly of Jews, at which there appeared and spoke a delegate from the Petlurist army, a representative of the “Greens,” and a representative of the local command, Vasili Krivenky. The substance of their speeches was that all communists were Jews, that a commune was injurious to the peasants, and that the Jews must be ordered to give up three machine guns and one mine-thrower. Dr. Vilenkis, Volynetz and Schwarzmann answered them, that all weapons had long since been collected by the preceding regimes. But this did not convince them. A commission of ten Jews was chosen to take part in searches of the Jewish population.
After the searches the Jews were driven out on the “Konnaia Torgovitza” (Horse-market Square), and immediately allowed to return home. Next day the same thing was repeated; they rounded up the Jews and demanded the surrender of weapons and of all communists. A list of communists was presented. At the same time the rebels surrounded Jewish dwellings and looted and killed. There were 15 people killed, and about 50 wounded.
The rebels held out until the month of July. An order for mobilization was issued, in which nothing was said of Jews. All the stores of grain which the preceding regime had collected, and all food products, were divided exclusively among Christians. An agitation was carried on that the peasants should sell nothing to the Jews. A convention of peasants was held, at which an Executive Committee was elected. In the first half of July a scouting party of Klimenko arrived, which killed one Jew and wounded one. At an assembly of Jews Klimenko demanded 400 suits of underclothing, several score of shoes, 15,000 cigarettes a day, etc. The Jews furnished the latter. ‘ Eight days later Tiutiunik’s detachment arrived in Talnoe. There were attempts at looting, but the soldiers of Klimenko stopped them, saying: “The Jews have given us so much that it is not worth while to kill them.” Then the bandsdeparted, and a period without a government ensued in Talnoe.
After Civil War
Wooden synagogue in Talne (middle 1920′s):
In Spring 1922 jews organized a self defence detachment (35 soldiers). In 1922 mainly the poorest Ukrainians and Jews founded a guild known as the “Beehive and a Bee”.
At JDC website I find this rather interesting report about a state of Talnoe Jewish Community in 1923:
REPORT ON TALNOE, KIEV GUBERNIA
In former days Talnoe was one of the most prosperous little towns in the Ukraine. It is situated in a district where the corn trade was at its height and having as its resident the famous “Talnoe Rabbi”, Jews from the entire district used to flock here, and brought with them welfare and prosperity into the town.
That used to be. Times have changed now. Talnoe, as well as the rest of the town in this district has suffered from a number of pogroms. Prosperity has gone long ago, so has the famous Rabbi and so have also all those that could afford to leave the town and find refuge in larger centres, more or less safe from pogroms and under better economic conditions. Only the very poor had to stay behind trying to make the best of it.
The general population consists of 14,000 among which are 8,000 Jews, including 500 refugee families.
The only institutions now in Talnoe are:
1. Ukrainian Children home
2. Home for Aged with 35 inmates.
A few versts out from Talnoe there is also an hospital with 50 beds. This hospital belongs to the sugar factory out there.
The Jewish children home burned down recently, the children of which have been quartered in private homes. The J. D. C has allocated $110 (5000 roubles) for repairs of the children home.
OUTSTANDING NEEDS OF TALNOE:
1. It is necessary to open a Home for 100 children.
2. $100 is needed for repairs of the public school premises.
3. It is important to open a dispensary which should also be provided with medicines. Dr. Belinkis who is a skilful doctor and prominent social worker, a resident for 40 years in Talnoe would be of great use in organizing this dispensary.
4. Bed-linen, clothing, footwear and food is needed for the Home for Aged.
5. The Bath-House must be repaired for which $200 is needed.
Some individual relief must be distributed among the neediest of the population.
RELIEF RENDERED BY J. D. C.
$200 sent by the New York Landsmanschaft on Feb. 23, 1923, was distributed on April 9th, 1923, by our inspector in accordance with the wishes of the Landsmanschaft.
This is how the money was distributed:
1. For the repair of the children home, recently destroyed by fire – Rs. 2500 ($56). (For this the JDC added out of its own funds Rs. 5,000).
2. For repairs of the premises of the Jewish Public school – Rs. 2000 (about $45)
3. For the Home for Aged – Rs. 1500 (about $33).
The balance – the sum of Rs.3000, (about $66) was distributed among the neediest of the Jewish population.
At that time arrangements were also made for the distribution of 25 Food Remittance Packages sent by the New York Landsmanschaft, and 7 Food Remittance Packages sent by the Argentine Landsmanschaft.
The J. D. C. has added 25 Food Remittance Packages for distribution out of its own Bulk Sale. Thus the miserable condition of those in dire need has somewhat been relieved; also the institutions have received some relief. But that is yet quite insufficient.
Jewish Komsomol devision in 1933. Talne
This photo was made in Talne in 1933. All these people are members of Jewish Komsomol devision. Photo was provided by wife of Shika Pogrebinskiy – Pogrebinskaya Sura Iosipovna before her death.
People in the first row (standing) from left to right: 1,2 – unknown; 3 – Pozharskiy; 4 – unknown woman; 5 – Shika Pogrebinskiy (?-1993)
People in th second row (sitting): 1 – Volinets; 2 – M. Pogrebinskiy; 3 – unknown woman; 4 – teacher Gorodetskiy; 5 – Baziyan; 6 – R. Pozharskiy; 7 – B. Hrapko
People in a third row (sitting): 1 – unknown; 2 – Kagan M.
People in 4th row (sitting): 1 – Kagan M.; 2 – unknown woman; 3 – Mezhiritskaya
In the 1920-30s. the number of Jews in Talne, like in other towns of Ukraine, decreased due to famine, repression and migration.
According to the 1926 census, 4,169 Jews lived in Talne (39% of the population).
Komsomol group in Jewish School №4. Photo by 1939
This photo provided by Kerpelman Grigoriy.
First row (standing from left to right): Naum Bilinkis, Kerpelman Grigoriy, Munya Shvartsman.
Middle row: Liza Soloduha, Buzya (surname is unknown), Martur – pioneer leader, Kogan <unknown name Nusevna> – Yiddish teacher, Yakov Bilinkis – head of school, Esya Finkel, Nesya Havulya, Sonya (surname is unknown)
Lowest row: Lisogor, Israel Chepurnoi – son of math teacher, Sonya.
Jewish guys at Talne foodball field. Most of them were killed during WWII. Photo by 1940.
First row (standing, from left to right): Solomon Safran, Gorbokon, Leva Sherstyaniy
Second row: Leva Pribluda, Leva Fonfat, Naum Feldman, Milya Gendler
Before the war, 1,866 Jews were recorded as living in Talne (15%).
Only small number of Jews evacuated in the first weeks of war. Germans tanks attack railway station and killed many civil people who were waiting for evacuation. Nuber of Jews among them is unknown but was a signifacant. On August 16, 1941, the local commandant ordered the registration of all Jews who were gathered in the square and told they would be sent in several parties to Uman.They were killed in the village of Bilashky (more than 2000).
On April 17, 1942, a second death action took place. Around 115 residents were killed. Many Jews who tried to evacuate from Western regions of USSR delayed in Talne and was killed together with local Jews.
After Talne liberation small number of Jews returned to Talne. After the WWII there was only one doctor in Talne region and she was a Jewish woman Titler Mariam.
Remains of second “action” victims were reburied in 1952-1953.
Reburial of Holocaust victims in Talne. 1952-1953. Standing man is Roizman Efim
Last minyan was gavered in private house in Talne at 1960′s. Most Jews emmigrate from Talne to different cityes of former USSR in 1970′s. In 2013 there live only 20 Jews, most of them are pensioners. Head of Jewish Community – Titler Valentina Romanovna. I have his contacts and can provide if you need it.
Due to efforts of Naum Feldman (who was borned in Talne, and now living in USA) in Brooklyn Holocaust Memorial Mall was opened a Monument in the honor of 500o jews which were killed in Talne. He gavered more than 100 jews from Talne and their descands for opening ceremony.
People at the ceremony. Naum Feldman is in a white clothes in the middle
People at the ceremony
Enterance to Brooklyn Holocaust Memorial Mall
They lived in Talne:
Rabbi Duvidl Tversky (1808-1882) – a chassidic rebbe and renowned Talmudic scholar, one of the eight sons of Rabbi Mordechai Tversky, the grandson of Rabbi Nohum Tversky (Magid of Chernobyl). R. Duvidl lived in Talne from 1854. His grave in the Jewish cemetery has become a place of pilgrimage for Bratslav Hasidim. Rabbi Duvidl lived in luxury and wealth and is said to have sat on a silver throne with a quotation from the Talmud inscribed in gold: “David, king of Israel, lives forever”. Rabbi David loved singing and music, and surrounded himself with cantors and klezmer singers. His personal cantor was Rabbi Joseph of Talne. After the death of R. Duvidl in 1882, the Hasidic court was headed by Rabbi Nohum Tversky. He died young and was succeeded by his son, Rabbi Yitzhak Tversky (1930-1997).
Mikhail Saulovich Elman
Josef from Talne (Josef Volynets) – the personal cantor of Talner Rebbe, author of Hasidic melodies, composer and performer,
Misha Elfman – a famous musician, violinist. Born on January 20, 1891 in Talne. In 1923 he moved to New York, where he died on April 5, 1967.
Petr Efimovich Vesklyarov (real name Vekslyarov, alias Grandfather Panas) – born on the 28th of May 1911 in Talne, died Jan. 5, 1994. in Kyiv) – an actor, TV presenter.
Isaac Shaevich Dvuhbabny – the Hero of the Soviet Union. Born on April 2, 1922 in T. Died on May 17, 1944. He was buried in the village of Geroevskoe near Kerch.
Photographer Rahmil Rabinovich
Rabinovich Rahmil Abramovich (1893-1943) was a photographer in Talne at the beginning of XX century. He took part in WWI and was rewarded with 2 St. George’s Crosses. During WWII Rahmil Rabinovich was enrolled to Red Army, captured, betrayed by his countryman and killed by Germans.
Klavdiya Kolesnikova from Korsyn Jewish Museum interviwed his daughter Ester in 2000′s and took next few photos:
Children and teachers in Jewish kindergarten in Talne. Photo of 1924
Daughter and granddaughter of Rahmil Rabinovich near the monument to soldiers killed during WWII, where name of Rahmil Rabinovich is engraved
Pioneers Rabinovich Ester and his brother Grigory. Photo of 1930′s
Rahmil Rabinovich with children. Photo of 1926
Rahmil Abramovich Rabinovich
Rahmil Abramovich Rabinovich
Rabinovich Abraham Solomonovich – teacher of Talmud Torah in Talne at the beginning of XX century
Rabinovich Manya Nyhimovna, born in Uman, wife of Rahmil Rabinovich. Photo of 1920′s
Old Jewish Cemetery
Situated in city centre, behind the school building. Ohel of Rabbi Duvidl Tversky (1808-1882) situated there. The cemetery borders on private gardens. Date Of The Oldest Known Gravestone is 1825.
Inscription on the most recent gravestone: פ”נ
מ’ טובה אשת
ר’ פסח צאמין
שבט שנת תרנ”ז
Is a respected woman,
Decent and humble,
Tova, the wife of
Rabbi Pesach Tzomin,
Who died on Shvat 26
May her soul be bound in the bond of life
Grave near Ohel
Old Ohel of Rabbi Duvidl Tversky
Old jewish cemetery. 1970′s-1980′s
Ohel of Rabbi Duvidl Tversky. Photo by Lo-Tishkah
Old jewish cemetery
Tombstones laying on the riverbank where the Soviet authorities had bulldozed all of the tombstones from the old Jewish cemetery. They needed to bulldozed the stones off to make room to build a school which now stands over the old graves. The tombstones lie on a nearby river bank – just scattered around – wherever they fell.
New Jewish Cemetery
New Jewish Cemetery in Talne. Photo by Lo-Tishkah
Located 3km from the city of Talne, along the Talne-Cherkasy road. The old part of the cemetery contains up to seven tombstones, the earliest burial refers to 1928. This part is utilized as a grazing ground. On the new part of the cemetery there are approximately 50 graves, as well as the mass grave of Jews murdered on August 19, 1941 at the city slaughterhouse, and reburied in the cemetery in 1952-53.
According to the Head of Jewish Community Titler Valentina Romaniva on this cemetery will иу buried only last 3 Halakha jews of Talne…
Inscription on the oldest found gravestone.
יט טבת תרפח
Is Simcha, son of
On Tevet 19, 5688
Bilashki Holocaust mass grave
The mass grave is located 3-4 km from Talne along the Talne-Uman road, in a field not far from the road (on the left side). There is a granite obelisk with an inscription in Russian. The obelisk was erected in August 1972. It isn’t mention that most of killed person were jews.
Survived at August 16, 1941.
Monument open ceremony. 1970′s
Bilashki. Photo by 2011
Bilashki. Ceremony in 2011
Monument on the mass grave.
Titler Valentina provided few historic photos – 4 survived Jews in 1981 and photo near monument at 1970′s.
Synagogue in Talne
In Internet i find only one photo of synagogue in Talne (on Yad Vashem website). Now It is District Metodical Cabinet.
School number 3 is a former Rabbi home.
Eshiva buiding still existing now.