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Voroshilovka

Voroshilovka

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Varshilovka (Yiddish), Vorosilovka (Dutch), Woroszylowka (Polish), Ворошилівка (Ukrainian), Ворошиловка – Voroshilovka (Russian)

Voroshilovka is a village located in Tivrov district of Vinnitsya region. It is located on the South Bug River. The village’s estimated population is 1247 (as of 2001). Voroshilovka is approx. 32 km from Vinnitsya and in 280 km from Kiev.

Before the Revolution it was a shtetl of Tivrov volost, Vinnitsky yezd, Podol guberniya.

This article was insipred by the writings of Michael Charnofsky who emigrated from Voroshilovka before World War I and wrote this charming book in 1960s.

Michael Charnofsky book

Michael Charnofsky book

 

The hard economic and political condition of this small Podolian Jewish shtetl in the beginning of XX century are described here very thoroughly. You can download it by this link.

Beginning

Jewish population of Voroshilovka:
1765 – 116 jews
1787 – 189 jews
1847 – 1847 jews
1897 – 1592 (50%)
1923 – 977 jews
1926 – 1,079 jews
2012 – 0

Taking in account Jewish history of Podolia we can assume that Jews appeared in Voroshilovka at the end of XVI – beginning of XVII century.

During Khmelnitskiy uprising the region became a fierce battleground of between the armies the Polish Commonwealth and The Cossack Hetmanate. Jews in the Podolia region suffered heavily during this period.

The first statistics regarding the Jewish population of Voroshilovka appear in 1765. The records indicated that Voroshilovka’s Jewish population numbered at 116.

Сhevra kadisha appeared in Voroshilovka at the begining of XIX century. The local synagogue housed the old Pinkas but it is unknown what happened to this valuable book in XX century.

Michael Charnofsky described Voroshilovka in his book:

Voroshilovka is a small town in the state of Kominetz-Podolsk near the big city of Vinitza, seven miles from Gneven, a railroad station in the Ukraine. Voroshilovka is situated in the midst of the breadbasket of Russia, where the orchards grow the best fruits in all of the country, and yet there is misery and poverty in every town and village.

Warshilovka, with only three streets. There was the main street, built like a square with three sides of houses and on the fourth side a great big church with a high brick fence in front and wide iron gate for the entrance. In the center of this square was built a square of stores that had four sides, eight stores on each side. Between the stores and houses was empty space for parking wagons on the fair.

To these fairs the peasants came from all the villages miles and miles away, to trade their farm products and to buy necessities for their homes, farms and themselves.

This main street would accommodate all the horses and wagons to show their products.

PreRevolution house in Voroshilovka. Photo taken from <a href="http://judaica.spb.ru/geo_html/shtetle_project_case_voroshilovka.html">Peterburg's judaica</a>

PreRevolution house in Voroshilovka. Photo taken from Peterburg’s judaica

Another narrow street was private, with houses on each side. It led at one end to the synagogues and at the other end to the orthodox church. This was called Hinder Street (Hintershte Gasse). The third street was about one block wide and five blocks long. This street was used mainly on fairs for livestock trading. Horses, cows, pigs, chickens, goats, and all other livestock were brough it here by the peasants to sell, to trade or to buy. It was called the Life Street (Lebediga Gasse). .

In this town of Warshilovka lived about two hundred jewish families and about two dozen Gentiles that worked for the Jews.

The two churches in Warshilovka were mainly used on fair days. All the peasants would first go to church before trading. There was no industry in town outside of spinning wheels that made rope from flax. The rope was woven into harnesses for horses.These were shipped to the big cities in the Ukraine. It was hard to make a living in Warshilovka so people were struggling.

Also Michael’s were placed short description of next families (for some families used street’s nicknames instead of real surnames):

family of Chaim Laiser Rever

On Life Street lived the family of Chaim Laiser Rever: four children, Chaim Laiser himself and his wife Sonia. Chaim Laser was six feet two inches tall; he was thin, with no flesh on his body.

His cheekbones stuck out like two horns, a long nose was between them, and his two eyes were sunken, leaving two big holes in the face. Bones, bones all over, pinched with hunger. His wife Sonia was short, only five feet five inches; she was thin and lightweight, but on the go all the time – cleaning, preparing, watching over her family. Moishe, the eldest son, and Berke the second son were just like the father. Even though they were yet very young their arms and feet were just like sticks, and their bodies – you could count every bone, and you wondered when they would break in half. The two daughters were not so bad. Their faces were filled out and on

their bodies there was some flesh. The goat around the house was the only brIght help, for twice every day Sonia would milk it and have a pot of milk from which to plan the meals for the family.

Chaim Laiser had a sichke business. He had a machine that cut straw into small, half-inch pieces.

Chaim David

Another family: Chaim David, the grocer-merchant in town. Chaim David, his wife Raisel, and their three children,two girls and one son, Ben Yochid, were all working in the grocery store,

particularly on fair. It was a busy store, with lots of items to sell. They had smalle (asphalt tar) to grease the wagons. That almot every peasant needed. They had kerosene. These items were sell on the outside of the store and special people had to attend to them, not to bring the smell into the store. For inside there was herring, dried fish, flour, sugar, beans of all kinds, grits of all kinds,and hundreds of other iterns. The kerosene smell would spoil the sale of them, so everyone had his own items to attend to. This store was busy from morning till night on fair days. Chaim David was stocky, middle-aged man with a big wide black beard combed out over his chest, with curly side beards and wide straight mustache, with his teeth showing between his lips, and with two blue bright eyes and a small rounded nose on a round, full face. He looked like a painted portrait. He was the head salesman. He was fast in his figures and quick in his actions, and he made the most sales.

RaiseI, his wife, was also stocky. She was shorter than he, but very fast. The townspeople held the conviction about her that she was the best-looking woman in town for her age, and she agreed with them. Most of the male peasants wanted her to wait on them. The two daughters took over the small sales and were good at it. The son, Ben Yochid, was watched by everyone so that he shouldn’t do too much, not work too hard; so he mostly made small change and watched that the people didn’t steal…

Their two daughters attended the best modern cheder. There they were taught, outside of Jewish, also Russian, arithmetic, geography, and world history, as well as great philosophers of the world. This was in a private school that was conducted by a rabbi and a college graduate from a Kiever University…

…They lived in a big house with many rooms. Two servants and one cook took care of all their needs. Raisel, outside of helping in the store and attending to her husband and their children, had many more responsibilities. They lived a good life, and were considered among the few able financially to live well.

Zalman Yankew David

Another family: Zalman Yankew David was a man in his early forties, but he had the  appearance of a man in his seventies. Zalman never worked in his life. He was a Talmud student. He always prayed, he always learned, he was almost always at home or in the

synagogue. He sat over a mishnaes, a gemura, a tillum, or other such books, reading and studying. He only took out time for eating two meals a day and sleeping and teaching his own three sons the greath learning of G-d, the Talmud , the Torah, and everything that e knew a Jew should learn. Zalman was well educated. He knew most of the Tillim by heart. He could converse with rabbis about the deep Jewish learning, and would show them many interpretations that contradicted the holy books. He could have been a rabbi but had no such desires.

When Zalman married, his wife knew and her father knew that he would never support a family. But his father-in-law wanted him in the family. He said that Zalman was gold and diamonds to a

family, so he provided full support for him and his wife.

When the father-in-law died, Zalman’s wife, Ruth, took over. They already had three children that were growing up, and the needs were big. So she decided to sell beads to the peasant women at the local fairs, and to travel to the nearby fairs. She  had three such fairs every month, and two extra ones in Voroshilovka. Ruth worked hard…

Zelda Erehel Baron's

Another family: Zelda Erehel Baron’s. Zelda was a widow left with eight children. The oldest was only twelve years old and the youngest only three years. Her husband died right after the youngest child was born. That is, he had been sick for many years, couldn’t work, and was only a burden on poor Zelda. She had to make the living and had to attend to this huge family. Every morning before daybreakshe was up to start her daily work. By the light of the kerosene lamp she had to wake one child after another, wash them, dress them, and serve them their first meal of the day. Zelda had a cow of her own, and every morning and evening she milked the cow and had milk for the children. She even had some milk left tn cook a midday meal. That was the biggest thing: Zelda had milk and for that she thanked G-d every time she fed the children.

The day had set in, the sun was fairly well up, with its warm rays that started to bring people from their homes to their businesses, to the streets, and to all their activities. Zelda was also ready to assume her activities. She peddled apples and other fruits. She had a basement, rented from one of the stores on the square, where she kept her fruit, and when she opened up she would make a stand on the street. From this stand she would do her business. Lately she was

taking along with her the two oldest boys to help her. They were a big help to her. First they would bring up the fruit while she displayed it, and later they helped to sell, and watched for stealing.

When fair came, with so many more people in town and with some peasants bringing their fruit for sale, Zelda had a real problem. But she found a way to do even more business. Zelda would bring all eight children to the fruit stand and let them sit in the background, and she kept on talking to the people, appealing to them.

Zelda Erehel Baron

Another family: Zelda Erehel Baron’s. Zelda was a widow left with eight children. The oldest was only twelve years old and the youngest only three years. Her husband died right after the youngest child was born. That is, he had been sick for many years, couldn’t work, and was only a burden on poor Zelda. She had to make the living and had to attend to this huge family. Every morning before daybreakshe was up to start her daily work. By the light of the kerosene lamp she had to wake one child after another, wash them, dress them, and serve them their first meal of the day. Zelda had a cow of her own, and every morning and evening she milked the cow and had milk for the children. She even had some milk left tn cook a midday meal. That was the biggest thing: Zelda had milk and for that she thanked G-d every time she fed the children.

The day had set in, the sun was fairly well up, with its warm rays that started to bring people from their homes to their businesses, to the streets, and to all their activities. Zelda was also ready to assume her activities. She peddled apples and other fruits. She had a basement, rented from one of the stores on the square, where she kept her fruit, and when she opened up she would make a stand on the street. From this stand she would do her business. Lately she was

taking along with her the two oldest boys to help her. They were a big help to her. First they would bring up the fruit while she displayed it, and later they helped to sell, and watched for stealing.

When fair came, with so many more people in town and with some peasants bringing their fruit for sale, Zelda had a real problem. But she found a way to do even more business. Zelda would bring all eight children to the fruit stand and let them sit in the background, and she kept on talking to the people, appealing to them.

Bed and Eta Gershens

Another family: Bed and Eta Gershens had two chIldren, a boy ten and a girl eight years old. They lived in a two-room basement apartment. Water was brought from the river Bug and stored

in a wine barrel. A kerosene lamp gave what light they had after dark, and the toilet was outside in the open. A big galvanized washtubwas used as a bath. The four of them slept on the brick-built stove. It was also used for cooking their meals and baking bread. The windows in their two roorns were very small. Not much iair or light came through them.

Berl was a sick man. He had a vicious cough. Some people said he had consumption, but he said it was just a neglected cough. His wife Eta was weak and sickly and stayed in bed most of the time. The eight-years-old did the cooking and the cleaning She was the one who went to her uncle Herschel, her mother’s brother, who gave them five rubles every week. With that they had to manage for their food for the week…

The doctor of the town Doctor Luria, reported to the rabbi that Bed and Eta with their children must move out of the basement into a light and sanitary place, and Berl must not live with them. He was consumptive and it was dangerous not only for the family but for the whole town.

Then the town provided a house near the bath house (budd), which had been vacant for a long time. They moved the family in; Bed had a separate room and separate dishes, and lived a lonely two years until he passed away.

Yankel the Iswaschick

Another family: Yankel the Iswaschick. Yankel had a pair of good horses and a carriage. He drove every day to Gneven the railroad station, seven miles from the town. Moishe the postman went with him to pick up the mail and Yankel took all the passengers that went to Gneven or came back.

Yankel had a big family: his wife Ruchal and six children. They lived very well. In fact, Ruchal cooked big meals. Every day she cooked meat, duck or chicken. Yankel said he worked hard and must eat well. Yankel was not a lazy man. He would if necessary drive his team anywhere, even sometimes hiring out for a trip that would take two, three, or four days, as long as there was money to be made.

Yankel sent all his children to cheder, and although they were not good students (not too bright) he hoped they would know more than he knew, for he didn’t have a good education. His father could not afford to send him to cheder. But he and his wife were determined to give their children a good education.

Moisha Zadels

Another family: Moisha Zadels. Moisha was the usurer in town. He lend money to Jew or Gentile. He was shrewd and a good businessman. His loans were made only on articles the borrower brought to him: copper pots, brass articles, clothes, watches, old rings, pillows, feather beds quilts blankets and all other articles of value. He would put a price on the articles himself and that was it. If he loaned ten rubles he would take two rubles off for the interest and give you only eight rubles to pay back in ten months, one ruble every month. On the last payment he would return the article.

Almost all of the towns people owed him money and many of the peasants were indebted to him. He was very strict. If you failed in your payment e would sock on double Interest. If you still didn’t pay your artiecIe was lost. He would not return it. About every six months he would load up a wagon full of articles, take them to Vinitza, and sell them.

Moisha was a tight man. He would never give to charity and wouldn’t give much to the synagogue. His donations measured up to those of the poorest man in town. No one liked him, no one had any use for him. The children in town used to call him the chalfen, the usurer. The men and women in town used to avoid him. If he walked on one side of the street people would walk on the other side so as not to meet him face to face. In the synagogue no one would sit next to him. He was never called to the Torah. He never was given an alea (honor). But he didn’t care. He went on his way.

One full moon night in the middle of a cold winter his house caught on fire. No one would corne to help put the fire out. His house burned to the ground with all the articles he had from the people who had borrowed from him. He also lost all of his own belongings, plus all the cash he had in the house. His wife and children came out naked and he was burned badly on his body when he tried to save his money but couldn’t. For weeks he lay in bed and the doctor attended to him. Moisha became poor. The borrowers stopped payment, for he couldn’t return their belongings, and many people threatened him because they wanted their belongings and were claiming a high value on them. Moisha and his family were reduced to the level of all the poor families in town, but without a friend and without any sympathy, for no one liked them and no one would help them. So they too struggled along.

 

The Jewish Encyclopedia published by Brockhaus and Efron in Saint Petersburg, mentions a legend about the 200-year-old wooden synagogue in Voroshilovka. According to the legend the synagogue was visited by the Baal Shem Tov who asked G-d to guard the building from water and fire. When Voroshilovka was later nearly completely destroyed by fire didn’t the synagogue remained standing because crows and pigeons surrounded the building and protect it.

Ruins of Jewish inn in the center of Voroshilovka

Ruins of Jewish inn in the center of Voroshilovka

Quotation from Michael Charnofsky’s book about Jewish emmigration to USA:

The struggle for a living was too great and hard. The danger of living in Russia, the anti-Semitism, the persecution of the Jews became unbearable. So Simche and Molke, as usual on Saturday night after Avdula, and while they were still under the influence of the Sabbath spirits, discussed their mere existence, their struggle to earn a piece of bread, and the difficulties of raising their children in such terrible poverty and under frightful anti-Semitism.

The boys were getting big. What could they expect in Russia? What opportunities were awaiting them in Russia? But if they were in America, in the golden land, everything would be open for them.

On the eve of the Revolution, Voroshilovka had up to 150 Jewish children enrolled in its cheders.

At the beginning of XX century the Jewish community collected 2300 rubles of local taxes per year but could use only small part of it.

Description of pogrom of 1905 from Michael Charnofsky's book

But the townspeople noticed many strange faces that had nothing to sell and were not buying either. They bunched together, furtively talking and looking around to be sure nobody heard them. They walked around the town examining the stores, looking at the displays of merchandise in tents. They stopped for a longer time around a big display of yard goods owned by two Gentiles who came from Vinitza and hoped to do a big business.

The actziznik was the first one to notice these strangers. The young Jews that were organized also noticed them, and one young man took off for Borscov on horseback to notify the Katzopes.

At the same time the actziznik went to the uratnik and told him of the strangers in town. They walked out together and approached the strangers, about twenty of them, strong-looking fellows.

The uratnik asked one if he could do something for him. He answered no, they were just looking around. By this time some of the busines speople became frightened. They felt something strangeand menacing in the air.

In Borscov the Katzopes gave the alarm and a couple dozen of them swarmed into Warshilovka, meeting with the young Jews they had trained. They were just in time, for the strangers starteda fight in one of the bigger stores with a savage call, “Bei zhidov!” (Hit the Jews). The pogrom was begun. The officers disappeared, but the trained fighters and the Katzopes were together on the scene. The fight became wilder and more vicious. Robbing and stealing started. Even the good peasants started to rob the Jewish stores, carrying goods to their wagons. They didn’t fight, they robbed. The strangers did the fighting, still shouting, “Bei zhidov!.”

The young Jews and the Katzopes got after the strangers with everything they could put their hands on. The fight became bloody and the strangers started to fall. Finally they were beaten, subdued, lay on the ground covered with blood from head to foot, begging for mercy.

Now everybody turned to the peasants wagons to regain the stolen goods. They did recover everything that had been taken. Many of the peasants felt the anger of the Katzopes for they were not satisfied with just taking back the goods, but they beat up the peasants who had stolen, too, telling them they had been warned not to start a pogrom in Warshilovka.

At this point the uratnik and his helper appeared. They too were beaten up. The display of yard goods owned by the two Gentiles disappeared. There wasn’t a fair of material left. All the wagons were ransacked till nothing was left, everything gone. All the stores were closed and the street was littered with beaten-up bodies that couldn’t even move, and there was no one to give them any help.

The uratnik began to beg the Katzapes and the Jewish fighters to stop and go home. They finally did, and little by little wagons started to move for home till only the injured were left.

Doctor Luria was called, but he wanted to be paid in advance for his work. Many of the peasants had money and paid the doctor.

The uryatnik helped, and one by one the doctor gave them first aid, bandaged them, and put them on their wagons for home. The Jewish people also gave some first aid to friendly peasants they knew, and sent them home. It was late at night before everybody was patched up and on his way.

The next morning the sun came out in its usual brightness. But it shine on a town littered with all kinds of merchandise: with coats, with fruit and vegetables, with hats and caps, with many papers. The local children went around picking up paper rubles and much silver money.For the kids it was a picni and for the town it was a victory.

Everybody congratulated each other, and particularly the Jewish youths that put up such a wonderful defense. The young men drove to Borscov in two wagons to express their thanks to the Katsopes for their loyal help and brought them presents.

Severaldays later three officers arrived from Vinitza to investigate the pogrom of the previous Sunday. They called it a pogrom on poor innocent peasants and Gentile businessmen. First they went to the rabbi. He knew nothing about it. All he could tell them was that such a thing had happened, but he didn’t know why, when, or how, and he knew no details. So they went to Chaim David, the main grocer in town, and in whose store the fighting and the robbing had started. Chaim David told them the story about those strange people at the fair…

 

Voroshilovka enterpreneurs list from Russian Empire Business Directories by 1913 :

According to the list over 95% of shops and enterprises in Voroshilovka belonged to Jews. The only doctor in shtetl was Mordko Ioselevich Kendel. Jews owned most shops, a drugstore and three inns.

Before the Revolution Voroshiloka had two synagogues.

Jewish Cemetery on the Voroshilovka map from 1900's. Map was taken from <a href="http://easteurotopo.org/">easteurotopo.org</a>

Jewish Cemetery on the Voroshilovka map from 1900’s. Map was taken from easteurotopo.org

Michael Charnofsky described these small episodes of Jewish life in Voroshilovka in first years of XX century:

about Bug River

The River Bug or, as we called it, “Beag,” was the river that run from Poland, through Proskorov, through the Ukraine, and byour little town of Warshilovka. It went through Vinitza, the big city nearest to Warshilovka, and went all the way through Odessa to empty into the Black Sea. The Bug stretched from about three hundred feet wide in places to about five or six hundred feet

in otherplaces in the town. Warshilovka found many uses for the Bug.

Noah the watercarrier supplied all of Warshilovka with drinking and cooking water from the river. Noah had a special wagon with a large tank which held several hundred gallons of water. He had a fairly good horse and he would drive to the Bug, fill his keg, and deliver the drinking and cooking water to all the families for ten kopekas (ten cents). Noah would fill up their tanks, which held from thirty to fifty gallons. He had a monopoly on the water, although some poor people would carry their own so that they wouldn’thave to pay anything.

At one point on the Bug a heavy rope was strung across the water,and attached to it was a parron (a flat boat) that would take four horses and wagons and a few people across the river. A person would pay a groshen (half a cent) and a horse and wagon three groshen.The side of the parrott had a wheel that the rope run and by pulling the rope the parron could be steered clear across the river to a platform on the other side. One had to patronize the parron in order to go to Gneven, a railroad station I or to the other villages.

The Bug was also the place where all the people would go to swim. The young men would swim all the way across the river to watch the girls bathing. Everyone swam in the nude and the men had a place for bathing and the women another place.

Tach

The flour mill was situated right on the Tach, a fast-running water that zigzagged for miles. It seemed to have no start and actually had no finish. Crystal-clear, cold spring water filled it on its journey, and as it went on it got deeper and wider and swifter. And where it crossed the town, people made much use of it.

First the flour mill with a big round wheel. The water turned the wheeland the wheel was connected by an axle to the big grinding machinery. It turned out the best flour. Peasants from all the farms and villages in the area brought their grain to this mill to be ground into flour. The mill was a big business in town, but only one man made a living from it. Oh yes, Yosel (Joseph), the owner, did employ one man to help him. Yosel and his hired man worked fifteen hours a day and then they unlocked the wheel from the shaft so it would stop turning. The next morning they started it again.

Hundreds of bags of flour were ground and turned back to their owners for a fee. Yosel had a good system. If the farmer had no money to pay he would work on a fifty-fifty basis. In other words the fanner would get back half of what he brought to be ground and Yosel the other half. If he had money to pay it was so much a bag. The majority of the fanners worked on the fifty-fifty system and Yosel had wholesale flour buyers who came at least once every week, pickedup the flour and paid cash for it.

Yosel worked up a tremendous business and was busy almost six months a year. In the winter, when the water was frozen, it was impossibleto run the mill.

The second good use the town made of the waters of the Tach was swimming. Children big and small went swimming every day.

In some places the water was deep, so the bigger children could swim across the stream. On the other side there were orchards with fine fruit, and there were no watchmen to drive the children off.In fact the owner of the orchard didn’t care if they helped themselves for he never bothered to pick the fruit. He only warned the children not to break the limbs of the trees. So the children bad a wonderful time. The smaller ones swam in the shallow water and even some women would come to bathe near the edge.

The Tach, before it became narrow at the mill, was quitewide, and at one place there was a flat beach with light sand for about two hundred yards. There were always people on this beach,especially women and children. They brought silver spoons, forks,and knives, brass candlesticks, chandeliers, copper pots, and other utensils to the beach to be scoured and cleaned. The brass and copperwere rubbed with that fine sand until they shone. Then they were washed clean in the water and taken horne beautifully shining.

The women would bring their milter and lugs. Milter were long, deep bowls for making bread. The dough was left in them to rise, then was made into twisted bread or the big round breads.

Lugshen brait was a big board, about eighteen inches by fortyinches, used to make noodles. These things had to be cleaned, and the sand and water did a good job.

The people also took doors and windows of! their hinge sand carried them down to the beach to be washed. ……This was done everyweek.The women were proud that everything was made shining cleanand the house took on a new look for the Sabbatb.

The Tach became such an important part of the town that people talked about it as though G-d himself stretched the cold, clear, running water through Warshilovka.

 

During the Russian civil war Voroshilovka’s Jewish population heavily suffer from pogroms perpetrated by various roaming bands. I have found one reference to an incident in 1919 when Petlura troops killed several Jews.

Most Jews left Voroshilovka due to the end of NEP (New Economic Policy) and start of collectivization in the end of 1920’s. During the course of this time the shtetl demographics started to change becoming more and more a Ukrainian village.

Holocaust

Voroshilovka was occupied on June 17, 1941 and was split into two parts with the border on the South Bug river. Left-bank of the village belonged to German “Reichskommissariat Ukraine” and right-bank belonged to the Romanians “Transnistria” where the ghetto was created.

According to memoirs of Fira Stukelman from Brooklyn who survived in Voroshilovka ghetto, in 1942 part of the Jewish population was transfered to Bershad. In the Bershad ghetto about 10.000 Jews survived and 13,000 perished.

In 1942-44 Jews from Bessarabia and Bukovina were resettled in Voroshilovka.

Due to the grueling conditions many Jews would die of starvation. In local Jewish cometary there is a  mass grave which was created in the winter 1942.

Synagogue in the center of Voroshilovka

Synagogue in the center of Voroshilovka

According statistics from the Vinnitza State Archives, by September 1st, 1943 in the Voroshilovka ghetto housed 278 Jews.

Unfortunately I haven’t found any more details in regards to the Holocaust period. Yad-Vashem database stores up to 100 names of Jews who perished in Voroshilovka.

Voroshilovka was liberated by the Red Army for the first on January 10th, 1944 however the Soviets were pushed back by a German counter-offensive. The village was liberated again for the final time on March 15th, 1944.

I haven’t found any information about the Jewish population after WWII. The Last gravestone in local jewish cemetery was dated from the 1990s. It can be assumed that last Jews of Voroshilovka emigrated or died around this time.

Geneology

The Vinnitsa State archives store numerous documents related to Jewish life in Voroshilovka. I have compiled a list with detailed information below (from Miriam Wainer website).

Unfortunately some valuable documents were destroyed by a fire at the Kamenets-Podolskiy Archive in 2003. Among them were several files related to Voroshilovka: birth records for 1850 and 1863, census for 1811, 1834 and 1896, death lists for 1863-1864, shop owners for 1867, marriages for 1864-1866 and voter lists for 1898.

Syangogue

Building of one synagogue still exist in Voroshilovka. It is using as a private building.

Synagogue in Voroshilovka

Synagogue in Voroshilovka

 

Jewish cemetery

Cemetery locates on south-west outskirts of the settlement. According to dates on gravestones it was founded in XIX century.

Ruins of Сhevra kadisha building still standing in the cememtery. Memorial table with inscription on Hebrew locates on one of the wall. It can be translated as:
“This building was build for the cost of Aizik Granavsky in the memory of his wife Ester-Lea, daughter of Eliahu. Build in 5675 (1915-1916)”.

The mass grave is located at the Jewish cemetery. According to my assumption it as a grave of Jews who died or were killed in ghetto during terrable winter 1942.

Location: Schorsa Street

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